• 1
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2008. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2008.
  • 2
    Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Krithivas K, et al. The CAG repeat within the androgen receptor gene and its relationship to prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997; 94: 3320-3323.
  • 3
    Hayes RB, Ziegler RG, Gridley G, et al. Dietary factors and risks for prostate cancer among blacks and whites in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999; 8: 25-34.
  • 4
    Lichtenstein P, Holm NV, Verkasalo PK, et al. Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer—analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 78-85.
  • 5
    Moul JW, Sesterhenn IA, Connelly RR, et al. Prostate-specific antigen values at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis in African-American men. JAMA. 1995; 274: 1277-1281.
  • 6
    Carpenter WR, Robinson WR, Godley PA. Getting over testosterone: postulating a fresh start for etiologic studies of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100: 158-159.
  • 7
    Institute of Medicine. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2003.
  • 8
    Institute of Medicine. The Unequal Burden of Cancer: An Assessment of NIH Research and Programs for Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 1999.
  • 9
    Bach PB, Cramer LD, Warren JL, Begg CB. Racial differences in the treatment of early stage lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 1198-1205.
  • 10
    Field TS, Buist DS, Doubeni C, et al. Disparities and survival among breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2005; 35: 88-95.
  • 11
    Harlan L, Brawley O, Pommerenke F, Wali P, Kramer B. Geographic, age, and racial variation in the treatment of local/regional carcinoma of the prostate. J Clin Oncol. 1995; 13: 93-100.
  • 12
    Gilligan T, Wang PS, Levin R, Kantoff PW, Avorn J. Racial differences in screening for prostate cancer in the elderly. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164: 1858-1864.
  • 13
    Boulware LE, Cooper LA, Ratner LE, LaVeist TA, Powe NR. Race and trust in the health care system. Public Health Rep. 2003; 118: 358-365.
  • 14
    Doescher MP, Saver BG, Franks P, Fiscella K. Racial and ethnic disparities in perceptions of physician style and trust. Arch Fam Med. 2000; 9: 1156-1163.
  • 15
    Halbert CH, Armstrong K, Gandy OH Jr, Shaker L. Racial differences in trust in health care providers. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 896-901.
  • 16
    Wasserman J, Flannery MA, Clair JM. Raising the ivory tower: the production of knowledge and distrust of medicine among African Americans. J Med Ethics. 2007; 33: 177-180.
  • 17
    LaVeist TA, Nickerson KJ, Bowie JV. Attitudes about racism, medical mistrust, and satisfaction with care among African American and white cardiac patients. Med Care Res Rev. 2000; 57( suppl 1): 146-161.
  • 18
    Lillie-Blanton M, Martinez RM, Salganicoff A. Site of medical care: do racial and ethnic differences persist? Yale J Health Policy Law Ethics. 2001; 1: 15-32.
  • 19
    Hobson W. Racial Discrimination in Health Care Interview Project—A Special Report. Seattle, Wash: Seattle and King County Department of Public Health; 2001.
  • 20
    Schecter AD, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ, McKee G, et al. Influence of gender, race, and education on patient preferences and receipt of cardiac catheterizations among coronary care unit patients. Am J Cardiol. 1996; 78: 996-1001.
  • 21
    Sedlis SP, Fisher VJ, Tice D, Esposito R, Madmon L, Steinberg EH. Racial differences in performance of invasive cardiac procedures in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997; 50: 899-901.
  • 22
    Gemson DH, Elinson J, Messeri P. Differences in physician prevention practice patterns for white and minority patients. J Commun Health. 1988; 13: 53-64.
  • 23
    Glanz K, Resch N, Lerman C, Rimer BK. Black-white differences in factors influencing mammography use among employed female health maintenance organization members. Ethn Health. 1996; 1: 207-220.
  • 24
    Gornick ME, Eggers PW, Riley GF. Associations of race, education, and patterns of preventive service use with stage of cancer at time of diagnosis. Health Serv Res. 2004; 39: 1403-1427.
  • 25
    Zun LS, Downey L. Adult health screening and referral in the emergency department. South Med J. 2006; 99: 940-948.
  • 26
    McFall SL. US men discussing prostate-specific antigen tests with a physician. Ann Fam Med. 2006; 4: 433-436.
  • 27
    Shi L. Experience of primary care by racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Med Care. 1999; 37: 1068-1077.
  • 28
    Blanchard JC, Haywood YC, Scott C. Racial and ethnic disparities in health: an emergency medicine perspective. Acad Emerg Med. 2003; 10: 1289-1293.
  • 29
    Shi L, Green LH, Kazakova S. Primary care experience and racial disparities in self-reported health status. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2004; 17: 443-452.
  • 30
    Walls CA, Rhodes KV, Kennedy JJ. The emergency department as usual source of medical care: estimates from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey. Acad Emerg Med. 2002; 9: 1140-1145.
  • 31
    Doescher MP, Saver BG, Fiscella K, Franks P. Racial/ethnic inequities in continuity and site of care: location, location, location. Health Serv Res. 2001; 36( 6 pt 2): 78-89.
  • 32
    Gaskin DJ, Arbelaez JJ, Brown JR, Petras H, Wagner FA, Cooper LA. Examining racial and ethnic disparities in site of usual source of care. J Natl Med Assoc. 2007; 99: 22-30.
  • 33
    Schroeder JC, Bensen JT, Su LJ, et al. The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP): methods and design of a multidisciplinary population-based cohort study of racial differences in prostate cancer outcomes. Prostate. 2006; 66: 1162-1176.
  • 34
    Zoorob R, Anderson R, Cefalu C, Sidani M. Cancer screening guidelines. Am Fam Physician. 2001; 63: 1101-1112.
  • 35
    Institute of Medicine. Ensuring Quality Cancer Care. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 1999.
  • 36
    Safran DG, Kosinski M, Tarlov AR, et al. The Primary Care Assessment Survey: tests of data quality and measurement performance. Med Care. 1998; 36: 728-739.
  • 37
    Charlson M, Pompei P, Ales K, MacKenzie C. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis. 1987; 40: 373-383.
  • 38
    Klabunde C, Potosky A, Legler J, Warren J. Development of a comorbidity index using physician claims data. J Clin Epidemiol. 2000; 53: 1258-1267.
  • 39
    Ware J, Kosinski M, Turner-Bowker D, Gandek B. How to Score Version 2 of the SF-12 Health Survey (With a Supplement Documenting Version 1). Lincoln, RI: Quality Metric, Inc.; 2002.
  • 40
    Murphy P, Davis T, Decker B, Jackson R. Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine: using a novel reading recognition test. J Reading. 1993; 37: 124-130.
  • 41
    Bennett C, Ferreira M, Davis T, et al. Relation between literacy, race, and stage of presentation among low-income patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 3101-3104.
  • 42
    Stata Corporation. Stata Statistical Software: Release 8.0 [computer program]. College Station, Tex: Stata Corporation; 2003.
  • 43
    Wooldridge J. A simple specification test for predictive ability of transformation models. Rev Econ Stat. 1994; 76: 59-65.
  • 44
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans 2007-2008. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2007.
  • 45
    Talcott J, Spain P, Clark J, et al. Hidden barriers between knowledge and behavior: the North Carolina Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment Experience. Cancer. 2007; 109: 1599-1606.
  • 46
    Thom DH, Kravitz RL, Bell RA, Krupat E, Azari R. Patient trust in the physician: relationship to patient requests. Fam Pract. 2002; 19: 476-483.
  • 47
    Thom DH, Ribisl KM, Stewart AL, Luke DA. Further validation and reliability testing of the Trust in Physician Scale. The Stanford Trust Study Physicians. Med Care. 1999; 37: 510-517.
  • 48
    Schers H, van den Hoogen H, Bor H, Grol R, van den Bosch W. Familiarity with a GP and patients' evaluations of care. A cross-sectional study. Fam Pract. 2005; 22: 15-19.
  • 49
    Baker R, Mainous AG,3rd, Gray DP, Love MM. Exploration of the relationship between continuity, trust in regular doctors and patient satisfaction with consultations with family doctors. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2003; 21: 27-32.
  • 50
    Keating NL, Green DC, Kao AC, Gazmararian JA, Wu VY, Cleary PD. How are patients' specific ambulatory care experiences related to trust, satisfaction, and considering changing physicians? J Gen Intern Med. 2002; 17: 29-39.
  • 51
    Babcock Irvin C, Wyer PC, Gerson LW. Preventive care in the emergency department, part II: clinical preventive services—an emergency medicine evidence-based review. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Public Health and Education Task Force Preventive Services Work Group. Acad Emerg Med. 2000; 7: 1042-1054.
  • 52
    Rhodes KV, Gordon JA, Lowe RA. Preventive care in the emergency department, part I: clinical preventive services—are they relevant to emergency medicine? Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Public Health and Education Task Force Preventive Services Work Group. Acad Emerg Med. 2000; 7: 1036-1041.