Effective vaccination is now available to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection and the cause of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. HPV vaccine uptake is particularly important for females surviving cancer, some of whom are at high risk for HPV complications because of the direct and indirect effects of cancer treatment. Thus, version 3.0 of the Children's Oncology Group's Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer recommends HPV vaccination for all eligible females surviving childhood cancer. Because this vaccine was only approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2006, little is known regarding the complexity of vaccination uptake among those surviving cancer. The purpose of this article was to describe the HPV vaccine and its usefulness in the survivorship population, provide a rationale for describing cancer survivors as being at increased risk for HPV complications, identify factors associated with HPV vaccination, and discuss the utilization of these predictors in designing strategies to promote adherence to HPV vaccination recommendations within the survivorship context. Cancer 2009. © 2009 American Cancer Society.