Combination of cladribine plus topotecan for recurrent or refractory pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

Authors

  • Hiroto Inaba MD, PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
    2. Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee
    • Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105
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    • Fax: (901) 521-9005

  • Clinton F. Stewart Pharm D,

    1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
    2. Department of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee
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  • Kristine R. Crews Pharm D,

    1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
    2. Department of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee
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  • Shengping Yang MS,

    1. Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
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  • Stanley Pounds PhD,

    1. Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
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  • Ching-Hon Pui MD,

    1. Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
    2. Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee
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  • Jeffrey E. Rubnitz MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
    2. Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee
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  • Bassem I. Razzouk MD,

    1. Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
    2. Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee
    3. Children's Center for Cancer and Blood Diseases, St. Vincent Children's Hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana
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  • Raul C. Ribeiro MD

    1. Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
    2. Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee
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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The prognosis after recurrence of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is poor, and effective salvage regimens are urgently needed.

METHODS:

In phase 1 and pilot studies, the authors evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of a 5-day course of cladribine followed by topotecan in pediatric patients with recurrent/refractory AML. The cladribine dose was escalated as follows: 9.1, 13.6, 16.3, and 19.5 mg/m2 per day (8.9 mg/m2 per day in the pilot study). Outcome was analyzed according to the absence (Stratum 1) versus presence (Stratum 2) of previous allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Twenty-six patients (20 in Stratum 1 and 6 in Stratum 2) were treated.

RESULTS:

The MTD was not reached in Stratum 1, but a DLT occurred at the lowest cladribine dosage (9.1 mg/m2 per day) in Stratum 2. Febrile neutropenia was common in both strata. Nine (34.6%) of 26 patients experienced a complete response, and 7 (30.4%) achieved a partial response; 5 (19.2%) were long-term survivors at the time of last follow‒up. Clinical outcome was not associated with cladribine or topotecan systemic exposure.

CONCLUSIONS:

The combination was well tolerated in Sratum 1, and the response rate was encouraging. This regimen offers a postrecurrence treatment alternative for patients, especially those who have received anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Cancer 2010. © 2010 American Cancer Society.

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