The objective of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of radiation dose escalation with concurrent chemotherapy using helical tomotherapy (HT) in patients with inoperable, locally advanced, stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer (LANSCLC) (grading determined according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition grading system).
This phase 1/2 study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of radiotherapy in patients with LANSCLC administered concurrently with docetaxel and cisplatin. Radiotherapy was delivered using HT. A dose per fraction escalation was applied starting at 2 grays (Gy), with an increase of 6% per dose cohort (DC). The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute radiation morbidity score was used to monitor pulmonary, esophageal, and cardiac toxicity.
Dose escalation was performed in 34 patients over 5 DCs to a dose per fraction of 2.48 Gy. No differences were observed in acute toxicity between the different DCs. However, a significant increase in late lung toxicity in DC IV, which received a fraction size of 2.36 Gy, necessitated a halt in further dose escalation with the MTD defined as 2.24 Gy per fraction. The overall incidence of acute grade ≥3 esophageal and pulmonary toxicity was 24% and 3%, respectively (grading determined according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity scoring system). The overall incidence of late lung toxicity was 21%, but the incidence was an acceptable 13% in DCs I, II, and III. The local response rate was 61% on computed tomography images.
The use of HT to 67.2 Gy with concurrent cisplatin/docetaxel was feasible and resulted in acceptable toxicity. A full phase 2 study has been initiated to establish the true local response rate at the MTD of 2.24 Gy per fraction. Cancer 2010. © 2010 American Cancer Society.