Dasatinib, a highly potent BCR-ABL inhibitor, is an effective treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML CP) after resistance, suboptimal response, or intolerance to prior imatinib. In a phase 3 dose optimization trial in patients with CML CP (CA180-034), the occurrence of pleural effusion was significantly minimized with dasatinib 100 mg once daily (QD) compared with other treatment arms (70 mg twice daily [twice daily], 140 mg QD, or 50 mg twice daily).
To investigate the occurrence and management of pleural effusion during dasatinib treatment, and efficacy in patients with or without pleural effusion, data from CA180-034 were analyzed.
With 24-month minimum follow-up, 14% of patients treated with dasatinib 100 mg QD incurred pleural effusion (grade 3: 2%; grade 4: 0%) compared with 23% to 26% in other study arms. The pleural effusion rate showed only a minimal increment from 12 to 24 months. In the 100 mg QD study arm, median time to pleural effusion (any grade) was 315 days, and after pleural effusion, 52% of patients had a transient dose interruption, 35% had a dose reduction, 57% received a diuretic, and 26% received a corticosteroid. Three patients in the 100 mg QD study arm discontinued treatment after pleural effusion. Across all study arms, patients with or without pleural effusion demonstrated similar progression-free and overall survival, and cytogenetic response rates were higher in patients with a pleural effusion.
Pleural effusion is minimized with dasatinib 100 mg QD dosing and its occurrence does not affect short- or long-term efficacy. Cancer 2010. © 2010 American Cancer Society.