SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Wingo PA, Ries LA, Rosenberg HM, Miller DS, Edwards BK. Cancer incidence and mortality, 1973-1995: a report card for the U.S. Cancer. 1998; 82: 1197-1207.
  • 2
    Wingo PA, Ries LA, Giovino GA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973-1996, with a special section on lung cancer and tobacco smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91: 675-690.
  • 3
    Howe HL, Wingo PA, Thun MJ, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer (1973 through 1998), featuring cancers with recent increasing trends. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 824-842.
  • 4
    Edwards BK, Howe HL, Ries LA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973-1999, featuring implications of age and aging on U.S. cancer burden. Cancer. 2002; 94: 2766-2792.
  • 5
    Weir HK, Thun MJ, Hankey BF, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2000, featuring the uses of surveillance data for cancer prevention and control. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 1276-1299.
  • 6
    Jemal A, Clegg LX, Ward E, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2001, with a special feature regarding survival. Cancer. 2004; 101: 3-27.
  • 7
    Edwards BK, Brown ML, Wingo PA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2002, featuring population-based trends in cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97: 1407-1427.
  • 8
    Howe HL, Wu X, Ries LA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2003, featuring cancer among U.S. Hispanic/Latino populations. Cancer. 2006; 107: 1711-1742.
  • 9
    Espey DK, Wu XC, Swan J, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2004, featuring cancer in American Indians and Alaska Natives. Cancer. 2007; 110: 2119-2152.
  • 10
    Jemal A, Thun MJ, Ries LA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2005, featuring trends in lung cancer, tobacco use, and tobacco control. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100: 1672-1694.
  • 11
    Ries LA, Wingo PA, Miller DS, et al. The annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973-1997, with a special section on colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2000; 88: 2398-2424.
  • 12
    Fritz A, Percy C, Jack A. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2000.
  • 13
    Horner MJ, Ries LAG, Krapcho M, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2006. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 2009. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2006/index.html Accessed August 17, 2009.
  • 14
    World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. 10th Rev. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1992.
  • 15
    World Health Organization. Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, Adapted for Use in the United States. 6th Rev. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1948.
  • 16
    World Health Organization. Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, Adapted for Use in the United States. 7th Rev. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1955.
  • 17
    US Department of Health Education and Welfare. Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, Adapted for Use in the United States. 8th Rev. Washington, DC: US Department of Health Education and Welfare, National Center for Health Statistics, Public Health Service; 1968.
  • 18
    World Health Organization. Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death, Based on the Recommendations of the Ninth Revision Conference, 1975. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1977.
  • 19
    Heron M, Hoyert DL, Murphy SL, Xu J, Kochanek KD, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: final data for 2006. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2009; 57: 1-134.
  • 20
    National Cancer Institute, Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Population Estimates Used in NCI's SEER*Stat Software. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/popdata/methods.html Accessed on September 30, 2009.
  • 21
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics System. U.S. census populations with bridged race categories. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/dvs/ popbridge/popbridge.htm Accessed March 20, 2008.
  • 22
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: Incidence-SEER 9 Registries Public-Use, November 2008 submission (1973-2006), National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch, released April 2009, based on the November 2008 submission. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch. Available at: http://www.seer.cancer.gov Accessed on October 6, 2009.
  • 23
    Surveillance Research Program, National Cancer Institute. SEER*Stat Software, version 6.5.2. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 2009. Available at: http://www.seer.cancer. gov/seerstat Accessed on September 30, 2009.
  • 24
    Kim HJ, Fay MP, Feuer EJ, Midthune DN. Permutation tests for joinpoint regression with applications to cancer rates. Stat Med. 2000; 19: 335-351.
  • 25
    Clegg LX, Feuer EJ, Midthune DN, Fay MP, Hankey BF. Impact of reporting delay and reporting error on cancer incidence rates and trends. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 1537-1545.
  • 26
    NCI. Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC). Available at: http://srab.cancer.gov/joinpoint/aapc.html Accessed September 9, 2009.
  • 27
    Clegg LX, Hankey BF, Tiwari R, Feuer EJ, Edwards BK. Estimating average annual percent change in trend analysis. Stat Med. 2009. In press.
  • 28
    Feuer EJ, Etzioni R, Cronin KA, Mariotto A. The use of modeling to understand the impact of screening on U.S. mortality: examples from mammography and PSA testing. Stat Methods Med Res. 2004; 13: 421-442.
  • 29
    Vogelaar I, van Ballegooijen M, Schrag D, et al. How much can current interventions reduce colorectal cancer mortality in the U.S.? Mortality projections for scenarios of risk-factor modification, screening, and treatment. Cancer. 2006; 107: 1624-1633.
  • 30
    National Cancer Institute. Colorectal Cancer Mortality Projections. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 2007.
  • 31
    National Cancer Institute. Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET). Available at: http://cisnet.cancer.gov/ Accessed August 20, 2009.
  • 32
    Morson B. President's Address. The polyp-cancer sequence in the large bowel. Proc R Soc Med. 1974; 67(6 pt 1): 451-457.
  • 33
    Morson BC. Evolution of cancer of the colon and rectum. Cancer. 1974; 34: 845-849.
  • 34
    Muto T, Bussey HJ, Morson BC. The evolution of cancer of the colon and rectum. Cancer. 1975; 36: 2251-2270.
  • 35
    Lansdorp-Vogelaar I, van Ballegooijen M, Zauber AG, Boer R, Wilschut J, Habbema JD. At what costs will screening with CT colonography be competitive? A cost-effectiveness approach. Int J Cancer. 2009; 124: 1161-1118.
  • 36
    Zauber AG, Lansdorp-Vogelaar I, Knudsen AB, Wilschut J, van Ballegooijen M, Kuntz KM. Evaluating test strategies for colorectal cancer screening: a decision analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2008; 149: 659-669.
  • 37
    National Cancer Institute. Cancer Progress Report—2003 Update. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services; 2004.
  • 38
    National Center for Health Statistics. Data File Documentation, National Health Interview Survey, 2003 (machine-readable data file and documentation) [monograph online]. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm Accessed May 22, 2006.
  • 39
    Winawer SJ. The multidisciplinary management of gastrointestinal cancer. Colorectal cancer screening. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2007; 21: 1031-1048.
  • 40
    Andre T, Boni C, Mounedji-Boudiaf L, et al. Oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as adjuvant treatment for colon cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 2343-2351.
  • 41
    [No authors listed] Efficacy of adjuvant fluorouracil and folinic acid in B2 colon cancer. International Multicentre Pooled Analysis of B2 Colon Cancer Trials (IMPACT B2) Investigators. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 1356-1363.
  • 42
    Cunningham D, Humblet Y, Siena S, et al. Cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan in irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 337-345.
  • 43
    de Gramont A, Figer A, Seymour M, et al. Leucovorin and fluorouracil with or without oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 2938-2947.
  • 44
    [No authors listed] Efficacy of adjuvant fluorouracil and folinic acid in colon cancer. International Multicentre Pooled Analysis of Colon Cancer Trials (IMPACT) investigators. Lancet. 1995; 345: 939-944.
  • 45
    Goldberg RM, Sargent DJ, Morton RF, et al. A randomized controlled trial of fluorouracil plus leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin combinations in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 23-30.
  • 46
    Hurwitz H, Fehrenbacher L, Novotny W, et al. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 2335-2342.
  • 47
    Moertel CG, Fleming TR, Macdonald JS, et al. Fluorouracil plus levamisole as effective adjuvant therapy after resection of stage III colon carcinoma: a final report. Ann Intern Med. 1995; 122: 321-326.
  • 48
    Moertel CG, Fleming TR, Macdonald JS, et al. Intergroup study of fluorouracil plus levamisole as adjuvant therapy for stage II/Dukes' B2 colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1995; 13: 2936-2943.
  • 49
    Saltz LB, Cox JV, Blanke C, et al. Irinotecan plus fluorouracil and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer. Irinotecan Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 905-914.
  • 50
    Saltz LB, Niedzwiecki D, Hollis D, et al. Irinotecan plus fluorouracil/leucovorin (IFL) versus fluorouracil/leucovorin alone (FL) in stage III colon cancer (intergroup trial CALGB C89803) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22( suppl 14): A-3500. Abstract 245s.
  • 51
    Tournigand C, Andre T, Achille E, et al. FOLFIRI followed by FOLFOX6 or the reverse sequence in advanced colorectal cancer: a randomized GERCOR study. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 229-237.
  • 52
    Gill S, Loprinzi CL, Sargent DJ, et al. Pooled analysis of fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy for stage II and III colon cancer: who benefits and by how much? J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 1797-1806.
  • 53
    Warren JL, Harlan LC, Fahey A, et al. Utility of the SEER-Medicare data to identify chemotherapy use. Med Care. 2002; 40( 8 suppl): IV-55-IV-61.
  • 54
    Ayanian JZ, Zaslavsky AM, Fuchs CS, et al. Use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for colorectal cancer in a population-based cohort. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 1293-1300.
  • 55
    Potosky AL, Harlan LC, Kaplan RS, Johnson KA, Lynch CF. Age, sex, and racial differences in the use of standard adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 1192-1202.
  • 56
    Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Grubb RL 3rd, et al. Mortality results from a randomized prostate-cancer screening trial. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 1310-1319.
  • 57
    Schroder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, et al. Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 1320-1328.
  • 58
    Tsodikov A, Szabo A, Wegelin J. A population model of prostate cancer incidence. Stat Med. 2006; 25: 2846-2866.
  • 59
    Etzioni R, Tsodikov A, Mariotto A, et al. Quantifying the role of PSA screening in the US prostate cancer mortality decline. Cancer Causes Control. 2008; 19: 175-181.
  • 60
    Draisma G, Etzioni R, Tsodikov A, et al. Lead time and overdiagnosis in prostate-specific antigen screening: importance of methods and context. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009; 101: 374-383.
  • 61
    Berry DA, Cronin KA, Plevritis SK, et al. Effect of screening and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 1784-1792.
  • 62
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2009. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2009.
  • 63
    Sloane D. Cancer epidemiology in the United States: racial, social, and economic factors. Methods Mol Biol. 2009; 471: 65-83.
  • 64
    Kolb B, Wallace AM, Hill D, Royce M. Disparities in cancer care among racial and ethnic minorities. Oncology (Williston Park). 2006; 20: 1256-1261; discussion 1261, 1265, 1268-1270.
  • 65
    Center MM, Jemal A, Ward E. International trends in colorectal cancer incidence rates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 1688-1694.
  • 66
    Umar A, Greenwald P. Alarming colorectal cancer incidence trends: a case for early detection and prevention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 1672-1623.
  • 67
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009; 59: 225-249.
  • 68
    Siegel RL, Jemal A, Ward EM. Increase in incidence of colorectal cancer among young men and women in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 1695-1698.
  • 69
    Fairley TL, Cardinez CJ, Martin J, et al. Colorectal cancer in U.S. adults younger than 50 years of age, 1998-2001. Cancer. 2006; 107( 5 suppl): 1153-1161.
  • 70
    Meissner HI, Breen N, Klabunde CN, Vernon SW. Patterns of colorectal cancer screening uptake among men and women in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15: 389-394.
  • 71
    Shapiro JA, Seeff LC, Thompson TD, Nadel MR, Klabunde CN, Vernon SW. Colorectal cancer test use from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008; 17: 1623-1630.
  • 72
    Brown ML, Potosky AL. The presidential effect: the public health response to media coverage about Ronald Reagan's colon cancer episode. Public Opin Q. 1990; 54: 317-329.
  • 73
    Mandel JS, Bond JH, Church TR, et al. Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for fecal occult blood. Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 1365-1371.
  • 74
    Mandel JS, Church TR, Bond JH, et al. The effect of fecal occult-blood screening on the incidence of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 1603-1607.
  • 75
    Levin B, Lieberman DA, McFarland B, et al. Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 1570-1595.
  • 76
    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Fletcher RH, et al. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer and the American Cancer Society. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 1872-1885.
  • 77
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for colorectal cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008; 149: 627-637.
  • 78
    Seeff LC, Richards TB, Shapiro JA, et al. How many endoscopies are performed for colorectal cancer screening? Results from CDC's survey of endoscopic capacity. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: 1670-1677.
  • 79
    Seeff LC, Nadel MR, Klabunde CN, et al. Patterns and predictors of colorectal cancer test use in the adult U.S. population. Cancer. 2004; 100: 2093-2103.
  • 80
    Klabunde CN, Lanier D, Nadel MR, McLeod C, Yuan G, Vernon SW. Colorectal cancer screening by primary care physicians: recommendations and practices, 2006-2007. Am J Prev Med. 2009; 37: 8-16.
  • 81
    Warren JL, Klabunde CN, Mariotto AB, et al. Adverse events after outpatient colonoscopy in the Medicare population. Ann Intern Med. 2009; 150: 849-857, W152.
  • 82
    Schatzkin A, Freedman LS, Dawsey SM, Lanza E. Interpreting precursor studies: what polyp trials tell us about large-bowel cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994; 86: 1053-1057.
  • 83
    Bernstein CN, McKeown I, Embil JM, et al. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori, incidence of gastric cancer, and peptic ulcer-associated hospitalizations in a Canadian Indian population. Dig Dis Sci. 1999; 44: 668-674.
  • 84
    Johns LE, Houlston RS. A systematic review and meta-analysis of familial colorectal cancer risk. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 2992-3003.
    Direct Link:
  • 85
    Butterworth AS, Higgins JP, Pharoah P. Relative and absolute risk of colorectal cancer for individuals with a family history: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2006; 42: 216-227.
  • 86
    Lynch HT, de la Chapelle A. Hereditary colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 919-932.
  • 87
    Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Working Group. Recommendations from the EGAPP Working Group: genetic testing strategies in newly diagnosed individuals with colorectal cancer aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality from Lynch syndrome in relatives. Genet Med. 2009; 11: 35-41.
  • 88
    Danaei G, Ding EL, Mozaffarian D, et al. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors [serial online]. PLoS Med. 2009; 6: e1000058.
  • 89
    Samad AK, Taylor RS, Marshall T, Chapman MA. A meta-analysis of the association of physical activity with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Colorectal Dis. 2005; 7: 204-213.
  • 90
    Tomeo CA, Colditz GA, Willett WC, et al. Harvard Report on Cancer Prevention. Volume 3: prevention of colon cancer in the United States. Cancer Causes Control. 1999; 10: 167-180.
  • 91
    Colditz GA, Cannuscio CC, Frazier AL. Physical activity and reduced risk of colon cancer: implications for prevention. Cancer Causes Control. 1997; 8: 649-667.
  • 92
    Larsson SC, Wolk A. Obesity and colon and rectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86: 556-565.
  • 93
    Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 1625-1638.
  • 94
    Hu FB, Willett WC, Li T, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Manson JE. Adiposity as compared with physical activity in predicting mortality among women. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 2694-2703.
  • 95
    Wang Y, Jacobs EJ, Patel AV, et al. A prospective study of waist circumference and body mass index in relation to colorectal cancer incidence. Cancer Causes Control. 2008; 19: 783-792.
  • 96
    Pischon T, Lahmann PH, Boeing H, et al. Body size and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98: 920-931.
  • 97
    Hawley ST, Volk RJ, Krishnamurthy P, Jibaja-Weiss M, Vernon SW, Kneuper S. Preferences for colorectal cancer screening among racially/ethnically diverse primary care patients. Med Care. 2008; 46( 9 suppl 1): S10-S16.
  • 98
    Hu F. Obesity Epidemiology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2008.
  • 99
    Giovannucci E. Metabolic syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, and colon cancer: a review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86: 836S-842S.
  • 100
    Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97: 1679-1687.
  • 101
    Chao A, Thun MJ, Connell CJ, et al. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. JAMA. 2005; 293: 172-182.
  • 102
    Cronin KA, Krebs-Smith SM, Feuer EJ, Troiano RP, Ballard-Barbash R. Evaluating the impact of population changes in diet, physical activity, and weight status on population risk for colon cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2001; 12: 305-316.
  • 103
    Khan LK, Sobush K, Keener D, et al. Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009; 58(RR-7): 1-26.
  • 104
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2004.
  • 105
    Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report from the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 2004.
  • 106
    Botteri E, Iodice S, Raimondi S, Maisonneuve P, Lowenfels AB. Cigarette smoking and adenomatous polyps: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134: 388-395.
  • 107
    Chao A, Thun MJ, Jacobs EJ, Henley SJ, Rodriguez C, Calle EE. Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study II. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000; 92: 1888-1896.
  • 108
    Giovannucci E. An updated review of the epidemiological evidence that cigarette smoking increases risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001; 10: 725-731.
  • 109
    Paskett ED, Reeves KW, Rohan TE, et al. Association between cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Initiative. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007; 99: 1729-1735.
  • 110
    Cuzick J, Otto F, Baron JA, et al. Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention: an international consensus statement. Lancet Oncol. 2009; 10: 501-507.
  • 111
    Chan AT, Ogino S, Fuchs CS. Aspirin use and survival after diagnosis of colorectal cancer. JAMA. 2009; 302: 649-658.
  • 112
    Flossmann E, Rothwell PM. Effect of aspirin on long-term risk of colorectal cancer: consistent evidence from randomised and observational studies. Lancet. 2007; 369: 1603-1613.
  • 113
    Thun MJ, Henley SJ, Patrono C. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as anticancer agents: mechanistic, pharmacologic, and clinical issues. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 252-266.
  • 114
    Cho E, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, et al. Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004; 96: 1015-1022.
  • 115
    Hao Y, Jemal A, Zhang X, Ward EM. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence rates by age, race/ethnicity, and indices of access to medical care, 1995-2004 (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Jun 19. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 116
    Wu X, Cokkinides V, Chen VW, et al. Associations of subsite-specific colorectal cancer incidence rates and stage of disease at diagnosis with county-level poverty, by race and sex. Cancer. 2006; 107( 5 suppl): 1121-1117.
  • 117
    NCI. A snapshot of colorectal cancer. NCI-Office of Science Planning and Assessment (OSPA). September 2008. Available at: http://planning.cancer.gov/disease/Colorectal-Snapshot.pdf Accessed August 21, 2009.
  • 118
    Mariotto AB, Yabroff KR, Feuer EJ, De Angelis R, Brown M. Projecting the number of patients with colorectal carcinoma by phases of care in the U.S.: 2000-2020. Cancer Causes Control. 2006; 17: 1215-1226.
  • 119
    Yabroff KR, Davis WW, Lamont EB, et al. Patient time costs associated with cancer care. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007; 99: 14-23.
  • 120
    Howlader N, Ries LA, Stinchcomb DG, Edwards BK. The impact of underreported Veterans Affairs data on national cancer statistics: analysis using population-based SEER registries. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009; 101: 533-536.
  • 121
    Nelson DE, Powell-Griner E, Town M, Kovar MG. A comparison of national estimates from the National Health Interview Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Am J Public Health. 2003; 93: 1335-1341.
  • 122
    Link MW, Battaglia MP, Frankel MR, Osborn L, Mokdad AH. Address-based versus random-digit-dial surveys: comparison of key health and risk indicators. Am J Epidemiol. 2006; 164: 1019-1025.
  • 123
    Miller BA, Chu KC, Hankey BF, Ries LA. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns among specific Asian and Pacific Islander populations in the U.S. Cancer Causes Control. 2008; 19: 227-256.
  • 124
    Howe HL, Lake A, Schymura MJ, Edwards BK. Indirect method to estimate specific Hispanic group cancer rates. Cancer Causes Control. 2009; 20: 1215-1226.
  • 125
    Espey DK, Wiggins C, Jim MA, Miller BA, Johnson CJ, Becker TM. Methods for improving cancer surveillance data in American Indian and Alaska Native populations. Cancer. 2008; 113( suppl 5): 1120-1130.
  • 126
    Wingo PA, Tucker TC, Jamison PM, et al. Cancer in Appalachia, 2001-2003. Cancer. 2008; 112: 181-192.
  • 127
    Lengerich EJ, Tucker TC, Powell RK, et al. Cancer incidence in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia: disparities in Appalachia. J Rural Health. 2005; 21: 39-47.
  • 128
    Becker TM, Espey DK, Lawson HW, Saraiya M, Jim MA, Waxman AG. Regional differences in cervical cancer incidence among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1999-2004. Cancer. 2008; 113( 5 suppl): 1234-1243.
  • 129
    Arias E, Schauman WS, Eschbach K, Sorlie PD, Backlund E. The Validity of Race and Hispanic Origin Reporting on Death Certificates in the United States. Atlanta, Ga: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control; 2008.
  • 130
    Institute of Medicine. Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2007.
  • 131
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs-2007. Atlanta, Ga: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2007.
  • 132
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Weight Control and Physical Activity. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2002.
  • 133
    World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research; 2007.
  • 134
    Kushi LH, Byers T, Doyle C, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2006; 56: 254-281; quiz 313-254.
  • 135
    Harriss DJ, Atkinson G, Batterham A, et al. Lifestyle factors and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of associations with leisure-time physical activity. Colorectal Dis. 2009; 11: 689-701.
  • 136
    Centers for Disease Control. CDC Weight of the Nation Conference. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/media/transcripts/2009/t090727.htm Accessed August 19, 2009.
  • 137
    Finkelstein EA, Brown DS, Wrage LA, Allaire BT, Hoerger TJ. Individual and aggregate years-of-life-lost associated with overweight and obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Aug 13. [Epub ahead of print].
  • 138
    Finkelstein EA, Trogdon JG, Cohen JW, Dietz W. Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer- and service-specific estimates [serial online]. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009; 28; w822-w831.
  • 139
    Ravdin PM, Cronin KA, Howlader N, et al. The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 1670-1674.
  • 140
    Cronin KA, Ravdin PM, Edwards BK. Sustained lower rates of breast cancer in the United States. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009; 117: 223-224.
  • 141
    Katalinic A, Rawal R. Decline in breast cancer incidence after decrease in utilisation of hormone replacement therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008; 107: 427-430.
  • 142
    Mason JB, Dickstein A, Jacques PF, et al. A temporal association between folic acid fortification and an increase in colorectal cancer rates may be illuminating important biological principles: a hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007; 16: 1325-1329.
  • 143
    National Cancer Institute. Colorectal Cancer: Six Years of Research Progress. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 2008.
  • 144
    Houlston RS, Webb E, Broderick P, et al. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data identifies 4 new susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer. Nat Genet. 2008; 40: 1426-1435.
  • 145
    Taplin SH, Haggstrom D, Jacobs T, et al. Implementing colorectal cancer screening in community health centers: addressing cancer health disparities through a regional cancer collaborative. Med Care. 2008; 46( 9 suppl 1): S74-S83.
  • 146
    Zapka J. Innovative provider- and health system-directed approaches to improving colorectal cancer screening delivery. Med Care. 2008; 46( 9 suppl 1): S62-S67.
  • 147
    NCCRT. National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable. Available at: http://www.nccrt.org/ Accessed September 16, 2009.
  • 148
    National Institutes of Health. NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening. Available at: http://consensus.nih.gov/ Accessed August 26, 2009.
  • 149
    Hosein PJ, Rocha-Lima CM. Role of combined-modality therapy in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2008; 7: 369-375.
  • 150
    Kopetz S, Chang GJ, Overman MJ, et al. Improved survival in metastatic colorectal cancer is associated with adoption of hepatic resection and improved chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 3677-3683.
  • 151
    Grothey A, Marshall JL. Optimizing palliative treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in the era of biologic therapy. Oncology (Williston Park). 2007; 21: 553-564,566; discussion 566-568,577-578.
  • 152
    Hamilton SR. Targeted therapy of cancer: new roles for pathologists in colorectal cancer. Mod Pathol. 2008; 21( suppl 2): S23-S30.
  • 153
    Jiang Y, Kimchi ET, Staveley-O'Carroll KF, Cheng H, Ajani JA. Assessment of K-ras mutation: a step toward personalized medicine for patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2009; 115: 3609-3617.
  • 154
    Segal NH, Saltz LB. Evolving treatment of advanced colon cancer. Annu Rev Med. 2009; 60: 207-219.
  • 155
    Marshall JL, Gehan EA. The development of novel agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer: a critical review of current practice and some suggestions for the future. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2007; 5: 167-172.
  • 156
    Lang K, Korn JR, Lee DW, Lines LM, Earle CC, Menzin J. Factors associated with improved survival among older colorectal cancer patients in the U.S.: a population-based analysis [serial online]. BMC Cancer. 2009; 9: 227.
  • 157
    Berry J, Bumpers K, Ogunlade V, et al. Examining racial disparities in colorectal cancer care. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2009; 27: 59-83.
  • 158
    Rolnick S, Hensley Alford S, Kucera GP, et al. Racial and age differences in colon examination surveillance following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2005; 96-101.
  • 159
    Alexander DD, Waterbor J, Hughes T, Funkhouser E, Grizzle W, Manne U. African-American and Caucasian disparities in colorectal cancer mortality and survival by data source: an epidemiologic review. Cancer Biomark. 2007; 3: 301-313.
  • 160
    Chanock SJ, Hunter DJ. Genomics: when the smoke clears. Nature. 2008; 452: 537-538.
  • 161
    Chin L, Gray JW. Translating insights from the cancer genome into clinical practice. Nature. 2008; 452: 553-563.
  • 162
    Carr KM, Rosenblatt K, Petricoin EF, Liotta LA. Genomic and proteomic approaches for studying human cancer: prospects for true patient-tailored therapy. Hum Genomics. 2004; 1: 134-140.
  • 163
    Feero WG, Guttmacher AE, Collins FS. The genome gets personal—almost. JAMA. 2008; 299: 1351-1312.