• 1
    Jemal A, Thun MJ, Ries LA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2005, featuring trends in lung cancer, tobacco use, and tobacco control. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100: 1672-1694.
  • 2
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008; 58: 71-96.
  • 3
    Schiffman M, Castle PE, Jeronimo J, Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Lancet. 2007; 370: 890-907.
  • 4
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cervical Cancer. 2009. Available at: Accessed April 9, 2009.
  • 5
    National Cancer Institute. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. 2009. Available at: Accessed April 9, 2009.
  • 6
    Wright TC Jr, Schiffman M. Adding a test for human papillomavirus DNA to cervical-cancer screening. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 489-490.
  • 7
    McCredie MR, Sharples KJ, Paul C, et al. Natural history of cervical neoplasia and risk of invasive cancer in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol. 2008; 9: 425-434.
  • 8
    Garland SM, Hernandez-Avila M, Wheeler CM, et al. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent anogenital diseases. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 1928-1943.
  • 9
    Future II Study Group. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 1915-1927.
  • 10
    Paavonen J, Jenkins D, Bosch FX, et al. Efficacy of a prophylactic adjuvanted bivalent L1 virus-like-particle vaccine against infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: an interim analysis of a phase III double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007; 369: 2161-2170.
  • 11
    Hildesheim A, Herrero R, Wacholder S, et al. Effect of human papillomavirus 16/18 L1 viruslike particle vaccine among young women with preexisting infection: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007; 298: 743-753.
  • 12
    Cuzick J, Szarewski A, Cubie H, et al. Management of women who test positive for high-risk types of human papillomavirus: the HART study. Lancet. 2003; 362: 1871-1876.
  • 13
    Cuzick J, Clavel C, Petry KU, et al. Overview of the European and North American studies on HPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening. Int J Cancer. 2006; 119: 1095-1101.
  • 14
    Arbyn M, Sasieni P, Meijer CJ, Clavel C, Koliopoulos G, Dillner J. Chapter 9: clinical applications of HPV testing: a summary of meta-analyses. Vaccine. 2006; 24( suppl 3): S3/78-S3/89.
  • 15
    Ronco G, Giorgi-Rossi P, Carozzi F, et al. Human papillomavirus testing and liquid-based cytology in primary screening of women younger than 35 years: results at recruitment for a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2006; 7: 547-555.
  • 16
    Ronco G, Segnan N, Giorgi-Rossi P, et al. Human papillomavirus testing and liquid-based cytology: results at recruitment from the new technologies for cervical cancer randomized controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98: 765-774.
  • 17
    Sherman ME, Lorincz AT, Scott DR, et al. Baseline cytology, human papillomavirus testing, and risk for cervical neoplasia: a 10-year cohort analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 46-52.
  • 18
    Kjaer S, Hogdall E, Frederiksen K, et al. The absolute risk of cervical abnormalities in high-risk human papillomavirus-positive, cytologically normal women over a 10-year period. Cancer Res. 2006; 66: 10630-10636.
  • 19
    Bulkmans NW, Berkhof J, Rozendaal L, et al. Human papillomavirus DNA testing for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and cancer: 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled implementation trial. Lancet. 2007; 370: 1764-1772.
  • 20
    Mayrand MH, Duarte-Franco E, Rodrigues I, et al. Human papillomavirus DNA versus Papanicolaou screening tests for cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 1579-1588.
  • 21
    Naucler P, Ryd W, Tornberg S, et al. Human papillomavirus and Papanicolaou tests to screen for cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 1589-1597.
  • 22
    Ronco G, Giorgi-Rossi P, Carozzi F, et al. Results at recruitment from a randomized controlled trial comparing human papillomavirus testing alone with conventional cytology as the primary cervical cancer screening test. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100: 492-501.
  • 23
    Sankaranarayanan R, Nene BM, Shastri SS, et al. HPV screening for cervical cancer in rural India. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 1385-1394.
  • 24
    Schiffman M, Wacholder S. From India to the world-a better way to prevent cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 1453-1455.
  • 25
    Mosher WD, Chandra A, Jones J. Sexual behavior and selected health measures: men and women 15-44 years of age, United States, 2002. Adv Data. 2005; 1-55.
  • 26
    Castle PE, Fetterman B, Akhtar I, et al. Age-appropriate use of human papillomavirus vaccines in the U.S. Gynecol Oncol. 2009; 114: 365-369.
  • 27
    Freeman HP, Wingrove BK. Excess cervical cancer mortality: a marker for low access to health care in poor communities. NIH Pub. No. 05-5282. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2007.
  • 28
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. United States Cancer Statistics. 2009. Available at: Accessed April 9, 2009.
  • 29
    Matthews AK, Berrios N, Darnell JS, Calhoun E. A qualitative evaluation of a faith-based breast and cervical cancer screening intervention for African American women. Health Educ Behav. 2006; 33: 643-663.
  • 30
    Brandt HM, Modayil MV, Hurley D, et al. Cervical cancer disparities in South Carolina: an update of early detection, special programs, descriptive epidemiology, and emerging directions. J S C Med Assoc. 2006; 102: 223-230.
  • 31
    Partridge EE, Fouad N, Hinton A, et al. The deep South network for cancer control: eliminating cancer disparities through community-academic collaboration. Fam Community Health. 2005; 28: 6-19.
  • 32
    Freire P. Pedagogia do oprimido. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Paz e Terra, 1987.
  • 33
    Wallerstein N, Duran B. The conceptual, historical, and practice roots of community based participatory research and related participatory traditions. In: MinklerM, WallersteinN, eds. Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass; 2003: 27-52.
  • 34
    Lisovicz N, Johnson RE, Higginbotham J, et al. The Deep South Network for cancer control. Building a community infrastructure to reduce cancer health disparities. Cancer. 2006; 107: 1971-1979.
  • 35
    Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS). Cervical Cancer Incidence and State of Diagnosis Among Women in Miami-Dade County. Miami, FL: University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Florida Cancer Data System; 2004.
  • 36
    Kobetz E, Menard J, Barton B, Pierre L, Diem J, Auguste PD. Patne en Aksyon: addressing cancer disparities in Little Haiti through research and social action. Am J Public Health. 2009; 99: 1163-1165.
  • 37
    Kobetz E, Menard J, Diem J, et al. Community-based participatory research in Little Haiti: challenges and lessons learned. Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2009; 3: 133-137.
  • 38
    Israel B, Schultz A, Parker E, Becker A, Allen A, Guzman R. Developing and Following Community Based Research Principles. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass; 2003.
  • 39
    Stepick A. Pride Against Prejudice: Haitians in the United States. Boston: Allyn & Bacon; 1998.
  • 40
    Farmer P. AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press; 1992.
  • 41
    MinklerM, WallersteinN (eds). Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass; 2003.
  • 42
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics/Latinos 2009-2011. Atlanta, GA, 2009.
  • 43
    U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission. Healthy Border 2010: An Agenda for Improving Health on the United States-Mexico Border. Washington, DC: U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission; 2003.
  • 44
    Williams MA, Mokry B, Risser D. Cervical Cancer in Texas 2006. Austin, TX: Texas Department of State Health Services; 2006.
  • 45
    Coughlin SS, Richards TB, Nasseri K, et al. Cervical cancer incidence in the United States in the US-Mexico border region, 1998-2003. Cancer. 2008; 113: 2964-2973.
  • 46
    Suarez L, Pulley L. Comparing acculturation scales and their relationship to cancer screening among older Mexican-American women. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1995; 41-47.
  • 47
    Fernandez-Esquer ME, Espinoza P, Ramirez AG, McAlister AL. Repeated Pap smear screening among Mexican-American women. Health Educ Res. 2003; 18: 477-487.
  • 48
    Fernandez-Esquer ME, Cardenas-Turanzas M. Cervical cancer screening among Latinas recently immigrated to the United States. Prev Med. 2004; 38: 529-535.
  • 49
    Leybas-Amedia V, Nuño T, Garcia F. Effect of acculturation and income on Hispanic women's health. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2005; 16: 128-141.
  • 50
    Buki LP, Jamison J, Anderson CJ, Cuadra AM. Differences in predictors of cervical and breast cancer screening by screening need in uninsured Latino women. Cancer. 2007; 110: 1578-1585.
  • 51
    Adams EK, Breen N, Joski PJ. Impact of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program on mammography and Pap test utilization among white, Hispanic, and African American women: 1996-2000. Cancer. 2007; 109: 348-358.
  • 52
    Wallace D, Hunter J, Papenfuss M, de Zapien JG, Denman C, Giuliano AR. Pap smear screening among women >/=40 years residing at the United States-Mexico border. Health Care Women Int. 2007; 28: 799-816.
  • 53
    Larkey L. Las mujeres saludables: reaching Latinas for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer prevention and screening. J Community Health. 2006; 31: 69-77.
  • 54
    Fernandez-Esquer ME, Espinoza P, Torres I, Ramirez AG, McAlister AL. A su salud: a quasi-experimental study among Mexican American women. Am J Health Behav. 2003; 27: 536-545.
  • 55
    Garcia F, Barker B, Santos C, et al. Cross-sectional study of patient- and physician-collected cervical cytology and human papillomavirus. Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 102: 266-272.
  • 56
    Seeff LC, McKenna MT. Cervical cancer mortality among foreign-born women living in the United States, 1985 to 1996. Cancer Detect Prev. 2003; 27: 203-208.
  • 57
    Vanslyke JG, Baum J, Plaza V, Otero M, Wheeler C, Helitzer DL. HPV and cervical cancer testing and prevention: knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes among Hispanic women. Qual Health Res. 2008; 18: 584-596.
  • 58
    Lehman R. Invasive Cervical Cancer Among American Indians in the Northern Plains, 1994-1998: Incidence, Mortality, and Missed Opportunities. Washington, DC: Indian Health Service; 2002.
  • 59
    McSwain R. Network for Cancer Control Research Among Native American and Alaska Native Populations. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services/Indian Health Service; 2008. Available at: NativeCIRCLEmeeting.pdf Accessed April 22, 2009.
  • 60
    Bell MC, Schmidt-Grimminger D, Patrick S, Ryschon T, Linz L, Chauhan SC. There is a high prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in American Indian women of the Northern Plains. Gynecol Oncol. 2007; 107: 236-241.
  • 61
    Cancer Incidence/Mortality Rates in Kentucky. Lexington, KY: Kentucky Cancer Registry; 2009. Available at: Accessed April 21, 2009.
  • 62
    Miller BA, Kolonel LN, Bernstein L, et al. Racial/Ethnic Patterns of Cancer in the United States 1988-1992. NIH Pub. No. 96-4104. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 1996.
  • 63
    Shive SE, Ma GX, Tan Y, Toubbeh J, Parameswaran L, Halowich J. Health information and cancer screening differences among Asian Americans. CA J Health Promot. 2006; 4: 1-11.
  • 64
    Shive SE, Ma GX, Tan Y, Toubbeh J, Parameswaran L, Halowich J. Racial differences in preventive and complementary health behaviors and attitudes. J Health Disparities Res Pract. 2006; 1: 75-92.
  • 65
    Sadler GR, Dong HS, Ko CM, Luu TT, Nguyen HP. Vietnamese American women: breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening adherence. Am J Health Promot. 2001; 15: 211-214, ii.
  • 66
    McPhee SJ, Stewart S, Brock KC, Bird JA, Jenkins CN, Pham GQ. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening practices among Vietnamese American women. Cancer Detect Prev. 1997; 21: 510-521.
  • 67
    Ma GX, Tan Y, Toubbeh JI, et al. Asian Tobacco Education and Cancer Awareness Research Special Population Network. A model for reducing Asian American cancer health disparities. Cancer. 2006; 107: 1995-2005.
  • 68
    Fang CY, Ma GX, Tan Y, Chi N. A multifaceted intervention to increase cervical cancer screening among underserved Korean women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007; 16: 1298-1302.
  • 69
    Schiffman M, Castle PE. The promise of global cervical-cancer prevention. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 2101-2114.
  • 70
    Marlow LAV, Waller J, Evans REC, Wardle J. Predictors of interest in HPV vaccination: a study of British adolescents. Vaccine. 2009; 27: 2483-2488.
  • 71
    Santry C. Muslim girls may miss out on cervical cancer immunisation. Health Serv J. 2008; 4: 4.
  • 72
    Warraich HJ. Religious opposition to polio vaccination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009; 15: 978.
  • 73
    Daniels NA, Juarbe T, Moreno-John G, Perez-Stable EJ. Effectiveness of adult vaccination programs in faith-based organizations. Ethn Dis. 2007; 17( 1 suppl 1 ): S15-S22.
  • 74
    Shafi S, Rashid H, Ali K, et al. Influenza vaccine uptake among British Muslims attending Hajj, 2005 and 2006. BMJ. 2006; 333: 1220.
  • 75
    Omer SB, Pan WK, Halsey NA, et al. Nonmedical exemptions to school immunization requirements: secular trends and association of state policies with pertussis incidence. JAMA. 2006; 296: 1757-1763.
  • 76
    Brotherton JM, Deeks SL, Campbell-Lloyd S, et al. Interim estimates of human papillomavirus vaccination coverage in the school-based program in Australia. Commun Dis Intell. 2008; 32: 457-461.
  • 77
    Watson M, Shaw D, Molchanoff L, McInnes C. Challenges, lessons learned and results following the implementation of a human papilloma virus school vaccination program in South Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2009; 3: 365-370.
  • 78
    Weisberg E, Bateson D, McCaffery K, Skinner SR. HPV vaccination catch up program - utilisation by young Australian women. Aust Fam Physician. 2009; 38: 72-76.