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Increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer among infertile men
Article first published online: 22 MAR 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society
Volume 116, Issue 9, pages 2140–2147, 1 May 2010
How to Cite
Walsh, T. J., Schembri, M., Turek, P. J., Chan, J. M., Carroll, P. R., Smith, J. F., Eisenberg, M. L., Van Den Eeden, S. K. and Croughan, M. S. (2010), Increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer among infertile men. Cancer, 116: 2140–2147. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25075
- Issue published online: 20 APR 2010
- Article first published online: 22 MAR 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 SEP 2009
- Manuscript Revised: 26 SEP 2009
- Manuscript Received: 1 JUL 2009
- National Institutes of Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Grant Number: K12 HD053943012
- National Institutes of Health. Grant Number: 1 RO1 CA69619
- California Urology Foundation
- California Department of Public Health as part of the statewide cancer reporting program mandated by California Health and Safety Code Section. Grant Number: 103885
- National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Grant Number: N01-PC-35,136
- Northern California Cancer Center. Grant Number: N01-PC-35,139
- University of Southern California. Grant Number: N02-PC-15,105
- Public Health Institute
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries. Grant Number: U55/CCR921930-02
- prostate cancer;
- male infertility;
It has been reported that fatherhood status may be a risk factor for prostate cancer. In the current study, the authors examined the subsequent occurrence of prostate cancer in a cohort of men evaluated for infertility to determine whether male infertility is a risk factor for prostate cancer.
A total of 22,562 men who were evaluated for infertility from 1967 to 1998 were indentified from 15 California infertility centers and linked to the California Cancer Registry. The incidence of prostate cancer was compared with the incidence in an age-matched and geography-matched sample of men from the general population. The risk of prostate cancer in men with and those without male factor infertility was modeled using a Cox proportional hazards regression model.
A total of 168 cases of prostate cancer that developed after infertility were identified. Men evaluated for infertility but not necessarily with male factors were not found to have an increased risk of cancer compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 0.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.8-1.1). This risk was found to be highest for men with male factor infertility who developed high–grade prostate cancer (SIR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0). On multivariate analyses, men with male factor infertility were found to be 2.6 times more likely to be diagnosed with high–grade prostate cancer (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-4.8).
Men with male factor infertility were found to have an increased risk of subsequently developing high–grade prostate cancer. Male infertility may be an early and identifiable risk factor for the development of clinically significant prostate cancer. Cancer 2010. © 2010 American Cancer Society.