• 1
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2009. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2009.
  • 2
    Tomeo CA, Colditz GA, Willett WC, et al. Harvard Report on Cancer Prevention. Volume 3: Prevention of colon cancer in the United States. Cancer Causes Control. 1999; 10: 167-180.
  • 3
    Potter JD. Colorectal cancer: molecules and populations. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91: 916-932.
  • 4
    The Research Group for Population-Based Cancer Registration in Japan. Cancer incidence in Japan. In: Tajima K, Kuroishi T, Oshima A, eds. Cancer Mortality and Morbidity Statistics. Tokyo, Japan: Japan Scientific Societies Press; 2004: 95-130.
  • 5
    Parkin DM, Muir CS, Whelan SL, Gao JT, Ferlay J, Powell J. Cancer incidence in 5 continents. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1992.
  • 6
    Flood DM, Weiss NS, Cook LS, Emerson JC, Schwartz SM, Potter JD. Colorectal cancer incidence in Asian migrants to the United States and their descendants. Cancer Causes Control. 2000; 11: 403-411.
  • 7
    Chuang YC, Cubbin C, Ahn D, Winkleby MA. Effects of neighbourhood socioeconomic status and convenience store concentration on individual level smoking. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005; 59: 568-573.
  • 8
    Diez Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Muntaner C, et al. Neighborhood environments and coronary heart disease: a multilevel analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 146: 48-63.
  • 9
    Diez Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Caulfield L, Tyroler HA, Watson RL, Szklo M. Neighbourhood differences in diet: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999; 53: 55-63.
  • 10
    Cubbin C, Hadden WC, Winkleby MA. Neighborhood context and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the contribution of material deprivation. Ethn Dis. 2001; 11: 687-700.
  • 11
    Chuang YC, Ennett ST, Bauman KE, Foshee VA. Neighborhood influences on adolescent cigarette and alcohol use: mediating effects through parent and peer behaviors. J Health Soc Behav. 2005; 46: 187-204.
  • 12
    Kling JR, Liebman JB, Katz LF. Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica. 2007; 75: 83-119.
  • 13
    Colditz GA. The Nurses' Health Study: a cohort of US women followed since 1976. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 1995; 50: 40-44.
  • 14
    Diez Roux AV, Merkin SS, Arnett D, et al. Neighborhood of residence and incidence of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 99-106.
  • 15
    Jacobs EJ, Connell CJ, Chao A, et al. Multivitamin use and colorectal cancer incidence in a US cohort: does timing matter? Am J Epidemiol. 2003; 158: 621-628.
  • 16
    Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol. 1985; 122: 51-65.
  • 17
    Wolf AM, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire. Int J Epidemiol. 1994; 23: 991-999.
  • 18
    Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Chute CG, Litin LB, Willett WC. Validity of self-reported waist and hip circumferences in men and women. Epidemiol. 1990; 1: 466-473.
  • 19
    Drasgow F. Polychoric and polyserial correlations. In Kotz L, Johnson NL, eds. Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences. Vol 7. New York, NY: Wiley; 1988: 69-74.
  • 20
    Spearman C. General intelligence: objectively determined and measured. Am J Psychol. 1904; 15: 201-293.
  • 21
    Sobel ME. Asymptotic confidence intervals for other statistic by simply replacing the estimation portions indirect effects in structural equation models with the desired computations. Sociol Methodol. 1982; 12: 290-312.
  • 22
    Loehlin JC. Latent Variable Models: An Introduction to Factor, Path, and Structural Equation Analysis. 4th ed. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates; 2004.
  • 23
    Baquet CR, Horm JW, Gibbs T, Greenwald P. Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence among blacks and whites. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991; 83: 551-557.
  • 24
    Gorey KM, Vena JE. The association of near poverty status with cancer incidence among black and white adults. J Community Health. 1995; 20: 359-366.
  • 25
    Kee F, Wilson R, Currie S, et al. Socioeconomic circumstances and the risk of bowel cancer in Northern Ireland. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1996; 50: 640-644.
  • 26
    Gorey KM, Holowaty EJ, Laukkanen E, Fehringer G, Richter NL. Association between socioeconomic status and cancer incidence in Toronto, Ontario: possible confounding of cancer mortality by incidence and survival. Cancer Prev Control. 1998; 2: 236-241.
  • 27
    Iacopetta B. Are there 2 sides to colorectal cancer? Int J Cancer. 2002; 101: 403-408.
  • 28
    Wakai K, Hirose K, Matsuo K, et al. Dietary risk factors for colon and rectal cancers: a comparative case-control study. J Epidemiol. 2006; 16: 125-135.
  • 29
    Wei EK, Giovannucci E, Wu K, et al. Comparison of risk factors for colon and rectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2004; 108: 433-442.
  • 30
    Frederiksen BL, Osler M, Harling H, Danish Colorectal Cancer Group, Jorgensen T. Social inequalities in stage at diagnosis of rectal but not in colonic cancer: a nationwide study. Br J Cancer. 2008; 98: 668-673.
  • 31
    Burnley IH. Disadvantage and male cancer incidence and mortality in New South Wales 1985-1993. Soc Sci Med. 1997; 45: 465-476.
  • 32
    Sampson, RJ, Morenoff J. Durable inequality: spatial dynamics, social processes and the persistence of poverty in Chicago neighborhoods. In: Bowles S, Durlauf S, Hoff K, eds. Poverty Traps. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 2006: 176-203.
  • 33
    Ross NA, Tremblay SS, Graham K. Neighborhood influences on health in Montreal, Canada. Soc Sci Med. 2004; 59: 1485-1494.