• 1
    American Cancer Society (ACS). Cancer Facts and Figures 2008. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2008.
  • 2
    Sugimura H, Yang P. Long-term survivorship in lung cancer: a review. Chest. 2006; 129: 1088-1097.
  • 3
    Dagnelie P, Pijls-Johannesma M, Lambin P. Impact of fatigue on overall quality of life in lung and breast cancer patients selected for high-dose radiotherapy. Ann Oncol. 2007; 18: 940-944.
  • 4
    Montazeri A, Milroy R, Hole D, McEwen J, Gillis CR. Quality of life in lung cancer patients: as an important prognostic factor. Lung Cancer. 2001; 30: 233-240.
  • 5
    Gotay CC, Kawamoto CT, Bottomley A, Efficace F. The prognostic significance of patient-reported outcomes in cancer clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 1355-1363.
  • 6
    Sprangers M, Schwartz CE. Integrating response shift into health-related quality of life research: a theoretical model. Soci Sci Med. 1999; 48: 1507-1515.
  • 7
    Nackley AG, Shabalina SA. Human catechol-O-methyltransferase haplotypes modulate protein expression by altering mRNA secondary structure. Science. 2006; 314: 1930-1933.
  • 8
    McGuffin P, Cohen S. Homing in on depression genes. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164: 195-197.
  • 9
    Zubieta JK, Heitzeg MM. COMT val158met genotype affects mu-opioid neurotransmitter responses to a pain stressor. Science. 2003; 299: 1240-1243.
  • 10
    Diatchenko L, Slade GD. Genetic basis for individual variations in pain perception and the development of a chronic pain condition. Hum Mol Genet. 2005; 14: 135-143.
  • 11
    Levinson DF, Evgrafov OV. Genetics of recurrent early-onset major depression (GenRED): significant linkage on chromosome 15q25-q26 after fine mapping with single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164: 259-264.
  • 12
    Holmans P, Weissman MM, Genetics of recurrent early-onset major depression (GenRED): final genome scan report. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164: 248-258.
  • 13
    Folkman S. Psychological effects of HIV infection. In: Goldberger L, Breznitz S, eds. Handbook of Stress: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Free Press; 1993: 658-681.
  • 14
    Kiecolt Glaser JK, Robles TF, Heffner KL, Loving TJ, Glaser R. Psycho-oncology and cancer: psychoneuroimmunology and cancer. Eur Soc Med Oncol. 2002; 10: 165-169.
  • 15
    Smith JC. Understanding Stress and Coping. New York, NY: Macmillan; 1993.
  • 16
    Marucha PT, Crespin TR, Shelby RA, Andersen BL. TNF-α levels in cancer patients relate to social variables. Brain Behav Immun. 2005; 19: 521-525.
  • 17
    Bower JE, Ganz PA, Aziz N, Fahey JL. Fatigue and proinflammatory cytokine activity in breast cancer survivors. Psychosom Med. 2002; 64: 604-611.
  • 18
    Uchino BN, Cacioppo JT, Kiecolt-Glaser JK. The relationship between social support and physiological processes: a review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychol Bull. 1996; 119: 488-531.
  • 19
    Kiecolt-Glaser J, Glaser R. Methodological issues in behavioral immunology research with humans. Brain Behav Immun. 1998; 2: 67-78.
  • 20
    Alexandrakis M. Serum proinflammatory cytokines and its relationship to clinical parameters in lung cancer patients with reactive thrombocytosis. Respir Med. 2002; 96: 553-558.
  • 21
    Costanzo ES, Lutgendorf SK, Sood AK, Anderson B, Sorosky J, Lubaroff DM. Psychosocial factors and interleukin-6 among women with advanced ovarian cancer. Cancer. 2005; 104: 305-313.
  • 22
    Savard J, Simard S, Ivers H, Morin CM. Randomized study on the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia secondary to breast cancer, part II: immunologic effects. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 6097-6106.
  • 23
    Thornton LM, Andersen BL, Crespin TR, Carson WE. Individual trajectories in stress covary with immunity during recovery from cancer diagnosis and treatments. Brain Behav Immun. 2006; 21: 185-194.
  • 24
    Marucha PT, Crespin TR, Shelby RA, Andersen BL. TNF-alpha levels in cancer patients relate to social variables. Brain Behav Immun. 2005; 19: 521-535.
  • 25
    Ah DV, Kang DH, Carpenter JS. Stress, optimism and social support: Impact on immune responses in breast cancer. Res Nurs Health. 2001; 30: 72-83.
  • 26
    Sephton SE, Koopman C, Schaal M, Thoresen C, Spiegel D. Spiritual expression and immune status in women with breast cancer. Breast J. 2001; 7: 345-353.
  • 27
    Schneiderman N, Antoni M, Saab PG, Ironson G. Health psychology: psychosocial and biobehavioral aspects of chronic disease management. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001; 52: 555-580.
  • 28
    Turner-Cobb JM, Sephton SE, Spiegel D. Psychosocial effects on immune function and disease progression in cancer: human studies. In: Adler R, Felten DL, Cohen DLN, eds. Psychoneuroimmunology. Vol 1. 3rd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2001: 565-582.
  • 29
    Seruga B, Zhang H, Bernstein LJ, Tannock IF. Cytokines and their relationship to the symptoms and outcome of cancer. Nature. 2008; 8: 887-899.
  • 30
    Hinds DA. Whole-genome patterns of common DNA variation in 3 human populations. Science. 2005; 307: 1072-1079.
  • 31
    Brull DJ, Montgomery HE, Sanders J, et al. Interleukin-6 gene −174g>c and −572g>c promoter polymorphisms are strong predictors of plasma interleukin-6 levels after coronary artery bypass surgery. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001; 21: 1458-1463.
  • 32
    deMaat MP, Bladbjerg EM, Hjelmborg JB, et al. Genetic influence on inflammation variables in the elderly. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004; 24: 2168-2173.
  • 33
    de Craen AJ, Posthuma D, Remarque EJ, et al. Heritability estimates of innate immunity: an extended twin study. Genes Immun. 2005; 6: 167-170.
  • 34
    Burzotta F, Iacoviello L, Di Castelnuovo A, et al. Relation of the −174 G/C polymorphism of interleukin-6 to interleukin-6 plasma levels and to length of hospitalization after surgical coronary revascularization. Am J Cardiol. 2001; 88: 1125-1128.
  • 35
    Johnson VJ, Yucesoy B, Luster MI. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytokine genes using real-time PCR allelic discrimination technology. Cytokine. 2004; 27: 135-141.
  • 36
    Shimura T, Haihara M, Takebe K. The study of tumor necrosis factor beta gene polymorphism in lung cancer patients. Cancer. 1994; 73: 1184-1188.
  • 37
    Hagihara M, Shimura T, Sato K, Genga K, Suzuki M, Tsuji K. HLA and tumor necrosis factor beta gene polymorphisms in Okinawa lung cancer patients: comparative study with mainland Japan lung cancer patients. Human Immun. 1995; 43: 95-100.
  • 38
    Lind H, Zienolddiny S, Ryberg D, Skaug V, Phillips DH, Haugen A. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism and risk of lung cancer: a possible interaction with polymorphisms in the interleukin 1 beta gene. Lung Cancer. 2006; 54: 261-263.
  • 39
    Shih CM, Lee YL, Chiou HL, et al. The involvement of genetic polymorphisms of IL-10 promoter in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2005; 50: 291-297.
  • 40
    Van Dyke AL, Cote ML, Wenzlaff AS, et al. Cytokine and cytokine receptor single-nucleotide polymorphisms predict risk for non-small cell lung cancer among women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 1829-1840.
  • 41
    Shih CM, Lee YL, Chiou HL, et al. Association of TNF-alpha polymorphism with susceptibility to and severity of non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2006; 52: 15-20.
  • 42
    Reyes-Gibby CC, Spitz M, Wu X, et al. Cytokine genes and pain severity in lung cancer: exploring the influence of TNF-α-308 G/A IL-6-174G/C and IL8-251T/A. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007; 16: 2745-2751.
  • 43
    Collado-Hidalgo A, Bower JE, Ganz PA, Irwin MR, Cole S. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and fatigue in breast cancer survivors: early findings. Brain Behav Immun. 2008; 22: 1197-2000.
  • 44
    Yang P, Allen MS, Aubry MC. Clinical features of 5,628 primary lung cancer patients: experience at Mayo Clinic from 1997 to 2003. Chest. 2005; 128: 452-462.
  • 45
    Svobodnik A, Yang P, Novotny PJ. Quality of life in 650 lung cancer survivors 6 months to 4 years after diagnosis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004; 79: 1024-1030.
  • 46
    Ware JE, Kosinski M. SF-36 physical and mental health summary scales: a manual for users. Lincoln, RI: Quality Metric; 2001.
  • 47
    Colgrove LA, Kim Y, Thompson N. The effect of spirituality on the quality of life of spousal caregivers of cancer survivors. Ann Behav Med. 2007; 33: 90-98.
  • 48
    Land S, Wickerham DL, Costantino JP, et al. The study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (STAR): first report of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from the NSABP P-2 breast cancer prevention study. JAMA. 2006; 295: 2742-2751.
  • 49
    Mosconi P, Cifani S, Crispino S, Fossati R, Apolone G. The performance of SF-36 health survey in patients with laryngeal cancer. Head and Neck Cancer Italian Working Group. Head Neck. 2000; 22: 175-182.
  • 50
    Hollen PJ, Gralla RJ, Kris MG, Cox C. Quality of life during clinical trials: Conceptual model for the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS). Support Care Cancer. 1994; 2: 213-222.
  • 51
    Hollen PJ, Gralla RJ, Kris MG, Cox C, Belani CP, Grunberg SM. Measurement of quality of life in patients with lung cancer in multicenter trials of new therapies: psychometric assessment of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale. Cancer. 1994; 73: 2087-2098.
  • 52
    Hollen PJ, Gralla RJ, Kris MG, Eberly SW, Cox C. Normative data and trends in quality of life from the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS). Support Care Cancer. 1999; 7: 140-148.
  • 53
    de Marinis F, Pereira JR, Fossella F, et al. Lung Cancer Symptom Scale outcomes in relation to standard efficacy measures: an analysis of the phase III study of premetrexed versus docetaxel in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2008; 3: 30-36.
  • 54
    Hollen PJ, Gralla RJ, Liepa AM, et al. Measuring quality of life in patients with pleural mesothelioma using a modified version of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS): psychometric properties of the LCSS-Meso. Support Care Cancer. 2006; 14: 11-21.
  • 55
    Hollen PJ, Gralla RJ, Kris MG, McCoy S, Donaldson GW, Moinpour CM. A comparison of visual analogue and numerical rating scale formats for the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS): does format affect patient ratings of symptoms and quality of life? Qual Life Res. 2005; 14: 837-847.
  • 56
    Hassan MI, Aschner A, Manning CH, Xu J, Aschner JL. Racial differences in selected cytokine allelic and genotypic frequencies among healthy, pregnant women in North Carolina. Cytokine. 2003; 21: 10-16.
  • 57
    Belsey DA, Kuh E, Welsch RE. Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Colinearity. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1980.
  • 58
    Hefler LA, Grimm C, Lantzsch T. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in Caucasian women. Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11: 5718-5721.
  • 59
    Smith KC, Bateman AC, Fussell HM, Howell WM. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Eur J Immunogenet. 2004; 31: 167-173.
  • 60
    Hopwood P, Thatcher N. Preliminary experience with quality of life evaluation in patients with lung cancer. Oncology. 1990; 4: 158-162.
  • 61
    Maier SF, Watkins LR. Immune-to-central nervous system communication and its role in modulating pain and cognition: implications for cancer and cancer treatment. Brain Behav Immun. 2003; 17( suppl 1): S125-S131.
  • 62
    Schafers M, Sommer C. Anticytokine therapy in neuropathic pain management. Expert Rev Neurother. 2007; 7: 1613-1627.
  • 63
    Bower JE. Prevalence and causes of fatigue after cancer treatment: the next generation of research. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 8280-8282.
  • 64
    Jacobsen PB, Donovan KA, Small BJ, Jim HS, Munster P, Andrykowski MA. Fatigue following treatment for early stage breast cancer: a controlled comparison. Cancer. 2007; 110: 1851-1859.
  • 65
    Broeckel JA, Jacobsen PB, Horton J. Characteristics and correlates of fatigue after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 1689-1696.
  • 66
    Schubert C, Hong S, Natarajan L, Mills PJ, Dimsdale JE. The association between fatigue and inflammatory marker levels in cancer patients: a quantitative review. Brain Behav Immun. 2007; 21: 413-427.
  • 67
    Malik UR, Makower DF, Wadler S. Interferon-mediated fatigue. Cancer. 2001; 92( 6 suppl): 1664-1668.
  • 68
    Hieber U, Heim ME. Tumor necrosis factor for the treatment of malignancies. Oncology. 1994; 51: 142-153.
  • 69
    Sosman JA, Aronson FR, Sznol M, et al. Concurrent phase I trials of intravenous interleukin 6 in solid tumor patients: reversible dose-limiting neurological toxicity. Clin Cancer Res. 1997; 3: 39-46.
  • 70
    Reuben DB, Mor V. Dyspnea in terminally ill cancer patients. Chest. 1986; 89: 234-236.
  • 71
    Sarna L, Riedinger MS. Assessment of quality of life and symptom improvement in lung cancer clinical trials. Semin Oncol. 2004; 31( 3 Suppl 9): 1-10.
  • 72
    Garrod R, Ansley P, Canavan J, Jewell A. Exercise and the inflammatory response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): does training confer anti-inflammatory properties in COPD? Med Hypotheses. 2007; 68: 291-298.
  • 73
    Seifart C, Plagens A, Dempfle A, Clostermann U, Vogelmeier C. TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, IL-6, and IL-10 polymorphisms in patients with lung cancer. Dis Markers. 2005; 21: 157-165.
  • 74
    Laviano A, Meguid MM, Rossi-Fanelli F. Cancer anorexia: clinical implications, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies. Lancet Oncol. 2003; 4: 686-694.
  • 75
    Jatoi A, Nguyen PL, Foster N, et al. Interleukin-1 genetic polymorphisms and their relationship to the cancer anorexia/weight loss syndrome in metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. J Support Oncol. 2007; 5: 41-46.
  • 76
    Zhang D, Zheng H, Zhou Y, Tang X, Yu B, Li J. Association of IL-1beta gene polymorphism with cachexia from locally advanced gastric cancer. BMC Cancer. 2007; 7: 45.
  • 77
    Yoder LH. An overview of lung cancer symptoms, pathophysiology, and treatment. Medsurg Nurs. 2006; 15: 231-234.
  • 78
    Ruckdeschel JC, Piantadosi S. Quality of life in lung cancer surgical adjuvant trials. Chest. 1994; 106( 6 suppl): 324S-328S.
  • 79
    Ganz PA, Lee JJ, Siau J. Quality of life assessment. An independent prognostic variable for survival in lung cancer. Cancer. 1991; 67: 3131-3135.
  • 80
    Bernhard J, Ganz PA. Psychosocial issues in lung cancer patients (pt 1). Chest. 1991; 99: 216-223.
  • 81
    Bernhard J, Ganz PA. Psychosocial issues in lung cancer patients (pt 2). Chest. 1991; 99: 480-485.