• 1
    American Cancer Society. Estimated new cancer deaths by sex, USA, 2009. Available at: Accessed November 13, 2009.
  • 2
    SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2006. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch; Released May 2009. Available at: Accessed November 13, 2009.
  • 3
    Ayanian JZ, Kohler BA, Abe T, Epstein AM. The relation between health insurance coverage and clinical outcomes among women with breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 326-331.
  • 4
    Bradley CJ, Given CW, Roberts C. Race, socioeconomic status, and breast cancer treatment and survival. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 490-496.
  • 5
    Carey LA, Perou CM, Livasy CA, et al. Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. JAMA. 2006; 295: 2492-2502.
  • 6
    McWhorter WP, Mayer WJ. Black/white differences in type of initial breast cancer treatment and implications for survival. Am J Public Health. 1987; 77: 1515-1517.
  • 7
    Bauer KR, Brown M, Cress RD, Parise CA, Caggiano V. Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype: a population-based study from the California cancer Registry. Cancer. 2007; 109: 1721-1728.
  • 8
    Furberg H, Millikan R, Dressler L, Newman B, Geradts J. Tumor characteristics in African American and white women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2001; 68: 33-43.
  • 9
    Ihemelandu CU, Leffall LD Jr, Dewitty RL, et al. Molecular breast cancer subtypes in premenopausal African-American women, tumor biologic factors and clinical outcome. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007; 14: 2994-3003.
  • 10
    Hausauer AK, Keegan TH, Chang ET, Clarke CA. Recent breast cancer trends among Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and African-American women in the US: changes by tumor subtype. Breast Cancer Res. 2007; 9: R90.
  • 11
    Lantz PM, Mujahid M, Schwartz K, et al. The influence of race, ethnicity, and individual socioeconomic factors on breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Am J Public Health. 2006; 96: 2173-2178.
  • 12
    Martinez ME, Nielson CM, Nagle R, Lopez AM, Kim C, Thompson P. Breast cancer among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women in Arizona. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2007; 18( suppl): 130-145.
  • 13
    Feldman LD, Hortobagyi GN, Buzdar AU, Ames FC, Blumenschein GR. Pathological assessment of response to induction chemotherapy in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 1986; 46: 2578-2581.
  • 14
    Fisher B, Bryant J, Wolmark N, et al. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 2672-2685.
  • 15
    O'Regan RM, Von Roenn JH, Carlson RW, et al. Final results of a phase II trial of preoperative TAC (docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) in stage III breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2005; 6: 163-168.
  • 16
    Sataloff DM, Mason BA, Prestipino AJ, Seinige UL, Lieber CP, Baloch Z. Pathologic response to induction chemotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the breast: a determinant of outcome. J Am Coll Surg. 1995; 180: 297-306.
  • 17
    Stearns V, Singh B, Tsangaris T, et al. A prospective randomized pilot study to evaluate predictors of response in serial core biopsies to single agent neoadjuvant doxorubicin or paclitaxel for patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2003; 9: 124-133.
  • 18
    Symmans WF, Peintinger F, Hatzis C, et al. Measurement of residual breast cancer burden to predict survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 4414-4422.
  • 19
    Wolmark N, Wang J, Mamounas E, Bryant J, Fisher B. Preoperative chemotherapy in patients with operable breast cancer: nine-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2001: 96-102.
  • 20
    Guarneri V, Broglio K, Kau SW, et al. Prognostic value of pathologic complete response after primary chemotherapy in relation to hormone receptor status and other factors. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 1037-1044.
  • 21
    Colleoni M, Viale G, Zahrieh D, et al. Chemotherapy is more effective in patients with breast cancer not expressing steroid hormone receptors: a study of preoperative treatment. Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10: 6622-6628.
  • 22
    Kuerer HM, Newman LA, Smith TL, et al. Clinical course of breast cancer patients with complete pathologic primary tumor and axillary lymph node response to doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 460-469.
  • 23
    Singletary SE, Allred C, Ashley P, et al. Staging system for breast cancer: revisions for the 6th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. Surg Clin North Am. 2003; 83: 803-819.
  • 24
    The World Health Organization Histological Typing of Breast Tumors--Second Edition. The World Organization. Am J Clin Pathol. 1982; 78: 806-816.
  • 25
    Black MM, Speer FD. Nuclear structure in cancer tissues. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1957; 105: 97-102.
  • 26
    Dawood S, Broglio K, Kau SW, et al. Triple receptor-negative breast cancer: the effect of race on response to primary systemic treatment and survival outcomes. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 220-226.
  • 27
    Li CI, Malone KE, Daling JR. Differences in breast cancer stage, treatment, and survival by race and ethnicity. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163: 49-56.
  • 28
    Crimmins EM, Kim JK, Alley DE, Karlamangla A, Seeman T. Hispanic paradox in biological risk profiles. Am J Public Health. 2007; 97: 1305-1310.
  • 29
    Franzini L, Ribble JC, Keddie AM. Understanding the Hispanic paradox. Ethn Dis. 2001; 11: 496-518.
  • 30
    Palloni A, Arias E. Paradox lost: explaining the Hispanic adult mortality advantage. Demography. 2004; 41: 385-415.
  • 31
    Palloni A, Morenoff JD. Interpreting the paradoxical in the hispanic paradox: demographic and epidemiologic approaches. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001; 954: 140-174.
  • 32
    Markides KS, Eschbach K. Aging, migration, and mortality: current status of research on the Hispanic paradox. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005; 60( spec no 2): 68-75.
  • 33
    Smith DP, Bradshaw BS. Rethinking the Hispanic paradox: death rates and life expectancy for US non-Hispanic White and Hispanic populations. Am J Public Health. 2006; 96: 1686-1692.
  • 34
    Chu KC, Lamar CA, Freeman HP. Racial disparities in breast carcinoma survival rates: separating factors that affect diagnosis from factors that affect treatment. Cancer. 2003; 97: 2853-2860.
  • 35
    Chlebowski RT, Chen Z, Anderson GL, et al. Ethnicity and breast cancer: factors influencing differences in incidence and outcome. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97: 439-448.
  • 36
    Woodward WA, Huang EH, McNeese MD, et al. African-American race is associated with a poorer overall survival rate for breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. Cancer. 2006; 107: 2662-2668.
  • 37
    Cai WM, Nikoloff DM, Pan RM, et al. CYP2D6 genetic variation in healthy adults and psychiatric African-American subjects: implications for clinical practice and genetic testing. Pharmacogenomics J. 2006; 6: 343-350.
  • 38
    Gaedigk A, Bradford LD, Marcucci KA, Leeder JS. Unique CYP2D6 activity distribution and genotype-phenotype discordance in black Americans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002; 72: 76-89.
  • 39
    Sparano JA, Wang W, Stears V, et al. Black race is associated with a worse outcome in patients with hormone receptor positive, Her2-normal breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemohormonal therapy. Cancer Res. 2010; 69: 494s.
  • 40
    Balmanoukian A, Zhang Z, Jeter S, et al. African American women who receive primary anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer suffer worse outcomes compared with white women. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: e35-e37; author reply e38-e39.