• 1
    Roetzheim RG, Pal N, Tennant C, et al. Effects of health insurance and race on early detection of cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91: 1409-1415.
  • 2
    Bradley CJ, Given CW, Roberts C. Late stage cancers in a Medicaid-insured population. Med Care. 2003; 41: 722-728.
  • 3
    Halpern MT, Ward EM, Pavluck AL, Schrag NM, Bian J, Chen AY. Association of insurance status and ethnicity with cancer stage at diagnosis for 12 cancer sites: a retrospective analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2008; 9: 222-231.
  • 4
    Roetzheim RG, Pal N, Gonzalez EC, Ferrante JM, Van Durme DJ, Krischer JP. Effects of health insurance and race on colorectal cancer treatments and outcomes. Am J Public Health. 2000; 90: 1746-1754.
  • 5
    McDavid K, Tucker TC, Sloggett A, Coleman MP. Cancer survival in Kentucky and health insurance coverage. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163: 2135-2144.
  • 6
    Kelz RR, Gimotty PA, Polsky D, Norman S, Fraker D, DeMichele A. Morbidity and mortality of colorectal carcinoma surgery differs by insurance status. Cancer. 2004; 101: 2187-2194.
  • 7
    Bradley CJ, Gardiner J, Given CW, Roberts C. Cancer, Medicaid enrollment, and survival disparities. Cancer. 2005; 103: 1712-1718.
  • 8
    Kirsner RS, Ma F, Fleming L, et al. The effect of Medicare health care delivery systems on survival for patients with breast and colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15: 769-773.
  • 9
    Ward E, Halpern M, Schrag N, et al. Association of insurance with cancer care utilization and outcomes. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008; 58: 9-31.
  • 10
    McGory ML, Zingmond DS, Sekeris E, Bastani R, Ko CY. A patient's race/ethnicity does not explain the underuse of appropriate adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006; 49: 319-329.
  • 11
    VanEenwynk J, Campo JS, Ossiander EM. Socioeconomic and demographic disparities in treatment for carcinomas of the colon and rectum. Cancer. 2002; 95: 39-46.
  • 12
    Esnaola NF, Stewart AK, Feig BW, Skibber JM, Rodriguez-Bigas MA. Age-, race-, and ethnicity-related differences in the treatment of nonmetastatic rectal cancer: a patterns of care study from the National Cancer Data Base. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008; 15: 3036-3047.
  • 13
    Wu X, Chen VW, Andrews PA, Chen L, Hsieh M, Fontham ET. Treatment patterns for stage III colon cancer and factors related to receipt of postoperative chemotherapy in Louisiana. J La State Med Soc. 2004; 156: 255-261.
  • 14
    Le H, Ziogas A, Lipkin SM, Zell JA. Effects of socioeconomic status and treatment disparities in colorectal cancer survival. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008; 17: 1950-1962.
  • 15
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2009. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2009.
  • 16
    Commission on Cancer. Registry Operations and Data Standards (ROADS): Revised 1/1/98. Chicago: American College of Surgeons; 1998.
  • 17
    Greene F, Page D, Fleming I, et al, eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 5th ed. Chicago: Springer; 1997.
  • 18
    Fritz A, Percy C, Jack A, et al, eds. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.
  • 19
    NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Rectal Cancer (Version 2.2009). Fort Washington, PA: National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc; 2009. Available at: Accessed July 1, 2009.
  • 20
    Esteve J, Benhamou E, Raymond L. Statistical Methods in Cancer Research, Volume IV: Descriptive Epidemiology. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1994. IARC Scientific Publication 128.
  • 21
    Berkson J, Gage RP. Calculation of survival rates for cancer. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin. 1950; 25: 270-286.
  • 22
    National Cancer Institute, Cancer Statistics Branch. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program SEER*Stat Database: Expected Rates—U.S. 2000 (White, Black, Other, and Unknown). Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2009. Accessed December 15, 2009.
  • 23
    Chapuis PH, Dent OF, Fisher R, et al. A multivariate analysis of clinical and pathological variables in prognosis after resection of large bowel cancer. Br J Surg. 1985; 72: 698-702.
  • 24
    D'Eredita G, Serio G, Neri V, Polizzi RA, Barberio G, Losacco T. A survival regression analysis of prognostic factors in colorectal cancer. Aust NZ J Surg. 1996; 66: 445-451.
  • 25
    Griffin M, Bergstralh E, Coffey R, Beart RW, Melton LJ. Predictors of survival after curative resection of carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Cancer. 1987; 60: 2318-2324.
  • 26
    Mulcahy HE, Skelly MM, Husain A, O'Donoghue DP. Long-term outcome following curative surgery for malignant large bowel obstruction. Br J Surg. 1996; 83: 46-50.
  • 27
    Shavers VL, Brown M. Racial and ethnic disparities in the receipt of cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 334-357.
  • 28
    Robbins AS, Pavluck AL, Fedewa SA, Chen AY, Ward EM. Insurance status, comorbidity level, and survival among colorectal cancer patients age 18 to 64 years in the National Cancer Data Base from 2003 to 2005. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 3627-3633.
  • 29
    Cronin DP, Harlan LC, Potosky AL, Clegg LX, Stevens JL, Mooney MM. Patterns of care for adjuvant therapy in a random population-based sample of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 2308-2318.
    Direct Link: