p14ARF, an alternate reading frame (ARF) product of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A locus, plays a critical role in crosstalk between the tumor protein 53 (p53) and retinoblastoma (Rb) pathways and in cellular anticancer mechanisms. Therefore, the authors of this report investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the p14ARF gene and the risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM) after an index squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of 2 p14ARF SNPs (reference SNP [rs]3731217 and rs3088440) with SPM-free survival and with the risk of developing an SPM among 1287 patients who had SCCHN.
Patients with either p14ARF variant genotypes of the 2 polymorphisms had a significantly reduced SPM-free survival compared with patients with no variant genotypes (log-rank test; P = .006). Compared with the p14ARF thymine-thymine (TT) and guanine-guanine (GG) genotypes, the variant genotypes of p14ARF TG/GG and guanine-adenine (GA)/AA were associated with a significantly moderately increased risk of developing an SPM (p14ARF rs3731217: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-2.19; p14ARF rs3088440: aHR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.43). Moreover, after combining the variant genotypes of the 2 SNPs, patients who had variant genotypes were at significantly greater risk of developing an SPM compared with patients who had no variant genotypes (aHR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.54-6.12), and the risk was particularly pronounced in several subgroups.
The current results suggested that there is a modestly increased risk of developing an SPM after an index SCCHN with each p14ARF polymorphism, and there is an even greater risk of developing an SPM for patients with combined variant genotypes of the 2 SNPs. Therefore, p14ARF polymorphisms may be susceptible markers of the risk of developing an SPM in patients with SCCHN. Cancer 2011. © 2010 American Cancer Society.