Hyperthermia combined with radiation for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer

Long-term results from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute study 94-153

Authors


Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The authors present long-term results from a phase 2 study that assessed the efficacy of transrectal ultrasound hyperthermia plus radiation with or without androgen suppression for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer.

METHODS:

Patients with clinical T2b-T3bN0M0 disease (according to 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] criteria) received radiation plus 2 transrectal ultrasound hyperthermia treatments. After the first 4 patients, 6 months of androgen suppression were allowed. The study was designed to assess absolute improvement in the 2-year disease-free survival rate compared with the short-term androgen suppression arm in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study 92-02.

RESULTS:

Thirty-seven patients received a total of 72 hyperthermia treatments. The mean cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM) T9043°C was 8.4 minutes. According to the 1992 AJCC classification, there were 19 patients with T2b tumors, 8 patients with T2c tumors, 5 patients with T3a tumors, and 5 patients with T3b tumors. The median Gleason score was 7 (range, 6-9), and the median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 13.3 ng/mL (range, 2-65 ng/mL). Thirty-three patients received androgen suppression. At a median follow-up of 70 months (range, 18-110 months), the 7-year overall survival rate was 94%, and 61% of patients remained failure free (according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition for failure free survival). The absolute rate of disease-free survival at 2 years, which was the primary study endpoint, improved significantly (84%) compared with a rate of 64% for similar patients on the 4-month androgen suppression arm of RTOG 92-02. When Phoenix criteria (PSA nadir + 2 ng/mL) were used to define biochemical failure, 89% of patients were failure free at 2 years.

CONCLUSIONS:

Hyperthermia combined with radiation for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer appeared to be promising. The current results indicated that further study of hyperthermia for the treatment of prostate cancer with optimal radiation and systemic therapy is warranted. Cancer 2010. © 2010 American Cancer Society.

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