Lower alimentary tract mucositis is a serious complication of chemotherapy. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of lower alimentary tract mucositis in a homogeneous population of patients with newly diagnosed myeloma receiving similar antineoplastic therapy and standardized supportive care.
Lower alimentary tract mucositis was evaluated among 303 consecutive patients with myeloma (2004-2007) enrolled in a clinical trial consisting of induction chemotherapy, tandem melphalan-based autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), and consolidation. Lower alimentary tract mucositis was defined as neutropenia-associated grade II-IV enteritis/colitis. Pretreatment risk factors were examined including body surface area (BSA), serum albumin (albumin), and estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl). Multiple logistic regression model was used to compute adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Forty-seven (15.5%) patients developed lower alimentary tract mucositis during 1529 courses of chemotherapy (including 536 melphalan-based ASCT). Pre-enrollment BSA <2 m2 (OR, 2.768; 95% CI, 1.200-6.381; P = .0169) increased the risk for lower alimentary tract mucositis, whereas higher albumin was protective (OR, 0.698; 95% CI, 0.519-0.940; P = .0177). Pretransplant variables associated with lower alimentary tract mucositis were BSA <2 m2 (OR, 4.451; 95% CI, 1.459-13.58, P = .0087) and estimated CrCl <60 mL/min (OR, 3.493; 95% CI, 1.173-10.40; P = .0246). Higher albumin level conferred protection (OR, 0.500; 95% CI, 0.304-0.820; P = .0061). No lower alimentary tract mucositis-related death was observed.
Lower alimentary tract mucositis is not uncommon among a homogenous population of oncology patients undergoing sequential courses of chemotherapy including melphalan-based ASCT but does not contribute to mortality. Lower BSA, renal function, and albumin are associated with increased risk for lower alimentary tract mucositis. Cancer 2011. © 2010 American Cancer Society.