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Malignancies, including the 3 that are part of the definition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Kaposi sarcoma [KS], non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], and cervical cancer) as well as certain non-AIDS–defining cancers, cause significant morbidity and an estimated 33% of the deaths reported among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The US Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) analysis highlighted several interesting and important trends in AIDS-defining and non-AIDS–defining cancers among individuals infected with HIV.