In March 2010, President Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act. This legislation attempts to address cost control and improve the quality of healthcare in the United States. Cancer is a major health problem in the United States and the leading cause of death for Americans under the age of 80. Therefore, cancer care providers need to be fully engaged in ongoing discussions regarding quality measurement and care delivery. With the optimum level of collaboration and support, the proposals in the legislation can be properly structured to deliver improved access to care via better delivery systems, as well as more appropriate reimbursement to advance the prevention and treatment of cancer. Cancer 2011. © 2010 American Cancer Society.