• 1
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA. 2006; 295: 1549-1555.
  • 2
    Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 1625-1638.
  • 3
    Barrett SV, Paul J, Hay A, Vasey PA, Kaye SB, Glasspool RM. Does body mass index affect progression-free or overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer? Results from SCOTROC I trial. Ann Oncol. 2008; 19: 898-902.
  • 4
    Matthews KS, Straughn JM Jr, Kemper MK, Hoskins KE, Wang W, Rocconi RP. The effect of obesity on survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2009; 112: 389-393.
  • 5
    Meyerhardt JA, Niedzwiecki D, Hollis D, et al. Impact of body mass index and weight change after treatment on cancer recurrence and survival in patients with stage III colon cancer: findings from Cancer and Leukemia Group B 89803. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 4109-4115.
  • 6
    Siddiqui SA, Inman BA, Sengupta S, et al. Obesity and survival after radical prostatectomy: a 10-year prospective cohort study. Cancer. 2006; 107: 521-529.
  • 7
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009; 59: 225-249.
  • 8
    Brown LM, Devesa SS, Chow WH. Incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus among white Americans by sex, stage, and age. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100: 1184-1187.
  • 9
    Hampel H, Abraham NS, El-Serag HB. Meta-analysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. Ann Intern Med. 2005; 143: 199-211.
  • 10
    MacDonald WC, MacDonald JB. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and/or gastric cardia. Cancer. 1987; 60: 1094-1098.
  • 11
    Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Nyren O. Association between body mass and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Ann Intern Med. 1999; 130: 883-890.
  • 12
    Morgan MA, Lewis WG, Hopper AN, et al. Prognostic significance of body mass indices for patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer. Dis Esophagus. 2007; 20: 29-35.
  • 13
    Skipworth J, Foster J, Raptis D, Hughes F. The effect of preoperative weight loss and body mass index on postoperative outcome in patients with esophagogastric carcinoma. Dis Esophagus. 2009; 22: 559-563.
  • 14
    Healy LA, Ryan AM, Gopinath B, Rowley S, Byrne PJ, Reynolds JV. Impact of obesity on outcomes in the management of localized adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007; 134: 1284-1291.
  • 15
    Fujitani K, Ajani JA, Crane CH, et al. Impact of induction chemotherapy and preoperative chemoradiotherapy on operative morbidity and mortality in patients with locoregional adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007; 14: 2010-2017.
  • 16
    GreeneFL, ed. AJCC Cancer Staging Atlas/American Joint Committee on Cancer. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
  • 17
    Trivers KF, De Roos AJ, Gammon MD, et al. Demographic and lifestyle predictors of survival in patients with esophageal or gastric cancers. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005; 3: 225-230.
  • 18
    Di Fiore F, Lecleire S, Pop D, et al. Baseline nutritional status is predictive of response to treatment and survival in patients treated by definitive chemoradiotherapy for a locally advanced esophageal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 2557-2563.
    Direct Link:
  • 19
    Ayazi S, Hagen JA, Chan LS, et al. Obesity and gastroesophageal reflux: quantifying the association between body mass index, esophageal acid exposure, and lower esophageal sphincter status in a large series of patients with reflux symptoms. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009; 13: 1440-1447.
  • 20
    Friedenberg FK, Xanthopoulos M, Foster GD, Richter JE. The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 2111-2122.
    Direct Link:
  • 21
    Bytzer P, Christensen PB, Damkier P, Vinding K, Seersholm N. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and Barrett's esophagus: a population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 86-91.
    Direct Link:
  • 22
    Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O. Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340: 825-831.
  • 23
    Ye W, Chow WH, Lagergren J, Yin L, Nyren O. Risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia in patients with gastroesophageal reflux diseases and after antireflux surgery. Gastroenterology. 2001; 121: 1286-1293.
  • 24
    Kilic A, Schuchert MJ, Pennathur A, et al. Impact of obesity on perioperative outcomes of minimally invasive esophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009; 87: 412-415.
  • 25
    Mullen JT, Davenport DL, Hutter MM, et al. Impact of body mass index on perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing major intra-abdominal cancer surgery. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008; 15: 2164-2172.
  • 26
    Holscher AH, Bollschweiler E, Schneider PM, Siewert JR. Prognosis of early esophageal cancer. Comparison between adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer. 1995; 76: 178-186.
  • 27
    Meltzer SJ. The molecular biology of esophageal carcinoma. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1996; 142: 1-8.