• 1
    Tande AJ, Platz EA, Folsom AR. The metabolic syndrome is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2006; 164: 1094-1102.
  • 2
    Lund Haheim L, Wisloff TF, Holme I, Nafstad P. Metabolic syndrome predicts prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged Norwegian men followed for 27 years. Am J Epidemiol. 2006; 164: 769-774.
  • 3
    Moradi T, Delfino RJ, Bergstrom SR, Yu ES, Adami HO, Yuen J. Cancer risk among Scandinavian immigrants in the US and Scandinavian residents compared with US whites, 1973-89. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1998; 7: 117-125.
  • 4
    . Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001; 285: 2486-2497.
  • 5
    Hsing AW, Sakoda LC, Chua S Jr. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86: s843-s857.
  • 6
    Gong Z, Neuhouser ML, Goodman PJ, et al. Obesity, diabetes, and risk of prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15: 1977-1983.
  • 7
    Freedland SJ, Banez LL, Sun LL, Fitzsimons NJ, Moul JW. Obese men have higher-grade and larger tumors: an analysis of the duke prostate center database. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009; 12: 259-263.
  • 8
    Kasper JS, Giovannucci E. A meta-analysis of diabetes mellitus and the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15: 2056-2062.
  • 9
    Calton BA, Chang SC, Wright ME, et al. History of diabetes mellitus and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cancer Causes Control. 2007; 18: 493-503.
  • 10
    Wang Y, Corr J, Thaler H, Tao Y, Fair W, Heston W. Decreased growth of established human prostate LNCaP tumors in nude mice fed a low-fat diet. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995; 4: 1456-1462.
  • 11
    Swinnen JV, Heemers H, van de Sande T, et al. Androgens, lipogenesis and prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004; 92: 273-279.
  • 12
    Kuoppala J, Lamminpaa A, Pukkala E. Statins and cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2008; 44: 2122-2132.
  • 13
    Magura L, Blanchard R, Hope B, Beal JR, Schwartz GG, Sahmoun AE. Hypercholesterolemia and prostate cancer: a hospital-based case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 2008; 19: 1259-1266.
  • 14
    Platz EA, Clinton SK, Giovannucci E. Association between plasma cholesterol and prostate cancer in the PSA era. Int J Cancer. 2008; 123: 1693-1698.
  • 15
    Ulmer H, Borena W, Rapp K, et al. Serum triglyceride concentrations and cancer risk in a large cohort study in Austria. Br J Cancer. 2009; 101: 1202-1206.
  • 16
    Jungner I, Marcovina SM, Walldius G, Holme I, Kolar W, Steiner E. Apolipoprotein B and A-I values in 147576 Swedish males and females, standardized according to the World Health Organization-International Federation of Clinical Chemistry First International Reference Materials. Clin Chem. 1998; 44(8 pt 1): 1641-1649.
  • 17
    Walldius G, Jungner I, Holme I, Aastveit AH, Kolar W, Steiner E. High apolipoprotein B, low apolipoprotein A-I, and improvement in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction (AMORIS study): a prospective study. Lancet. 2001; 358: 2026-2033.
  • 18
    Holme I, Aastveit AH, Jungner I, Walldius G. Relationships between lipoprotein components and risk of myocardial infarction: age, gender and short versus longer follow-up periods in the Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk study (AMORIS). J Intern Med. 2008; 264: 30-38.
  • 19
    Holme I, Aastveit AH, Hammar N, Jungner I, Walldius G. Relationships between lipoprotein components and risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk study (AMORIS). J Intern Med. 2009; 265: 275-287.
  • 20
    Walldius G, Jungner I, Kolar W, Holme I, Steiner E. High cholesterol and triglyceride values in Swedish males and females: increased risk of fatal myocardial infarction. First report from the AMORIS (Apolipoprotein related MOrtality RISk) study. Blood Press Suppl. 1992; 4: 35-42.
  • 21
    Statistics in the Areas of Health and Medical Care [database on the Internet]. 2007. Accessed on February 1, 2010.
  • 22
    Central Bureau for Statistics. Statistics Sweden. Stockholm: SCB; 2008. Accessed on February 1, 2010.
  • 23
    Mattsson B, Wallgren A. Completeness of the Swedish Cancer Register. Non-notified cancer cases recorded on death certificates in 1978. Acta Radiol Oncol. 1984; 23: 305-313.
  • 24
    The Swedish Cancer Registry [database on the Internet]. 2008. Accessed on February 1, 2010.
  • 25
    Jungner I, Walldius G, Holme I, Kolar W, Steiner E. Apolipoprotein B and A-I in relation to serum cholesterol and triglycerides in 43,000 Swedish males and females. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1992; 21: 247-255.
  • 26
    Pintilie M. Competing Risks: A Practical Perspective. Chichester, England: John Wiley; 2006.
  • 27
    Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome–a new worldwide definition. Lancet. 2005; 366: 1059-1062.
  • 28
    Kalbfleisch J, Prentice R. The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley; 2002.
  • 29
    Ahn J, Lim U, Weinstein SJ, Schatzkin A, Hayes RB, Virtamo J, et al. Prediagnostic total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 2814-2821.
  • 30
    Pierce BL, Plymate S, Ostrander EA, Stanford JL. Diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer risk. Prostate. 2008; 68: 1126-1132.
  • 31
    Locke JA, Guns ES, Lubik AA, et al. Androgen levels increase by intratumoral de novo steroidogenesis during progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2008; 68: 6407-6415.
  • 32
    Park SY, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Fat and meat intake and prostate cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2007; 121: 1339-1345.
  • 33
    Bravi F, Scotti L, Bosetti C, et al. Self-reported history of hypercholesterolaemia and gallstones and the risk of prostate cancer. Ann Oncol. 2006; 17: 1014-1017.
  • 34
    Wuermli L, Joerger M, Henz S, et al. Hypertriglyceridemia as a possible risk factor for prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2005; 8: 316-320.
  • 35
    Platz EA, Till C, Goodman PJ, et al. Men with low serum cholesterol have a lower risk of high-grade prostate cancer in the placebo arm of the prostate cancer prevention trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 2807-2813.
  • 36
    Holzmann M, Jungner I, Walldius G, Ivert I, Nordqvist T, Ostergren J. Apolipoproteins B and A-I, standard lipid measures and incidence of myocardial infarction in men and women, with or without chronic kidney disease. Study IV in thesis for doctorial degree (PhD). In: HolzmannM, ed. Renal Insufficiency, Mortality and Myocardial Infarction. Stockholm, Sweden: Karolinska Institutet; 2008.
  • 37
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Ascherio A, et al. Smoking and risk of total and fatal prostate cancer in United States health professionals. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999; 8( 4 pt 1): 277-282.
  • 38
    Varenhorst E, Garmo H, Holmberg L, et al. The National Prostate Cancer Register in Sweden 1998-2002: trends in incidence, treatment and survival. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2005; 39: 117-123.