• 1
    Berry DA, Cronin KA, Plevritis SK, et al; Breast Cancer Working Group of the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network. Effect of screening and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 1784-1792.
  • 2
    Foy M, Spitz MR, Kimmel M, Gorlova OY. A smoking-based carcinogenesis model for lung cancer risk prediction. Int J Cancer. In press.
  • 3
    Henschke CI, McCauley DI, Yankelevitz DF, et al. Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening. Lancet. 1999; 354: 99-105.
  • 4
    Henschke CI, Naidich DP, Yankelevitz DF, et al. Early lung cancer action project: initial findings on repeat screening. Cancer. 2001; 92: 153-159.
  • 5
    International Early Lung Cancer Action Program Investigators, Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF, et al. Survival of patients with stage I lung cancer detected on CT screening. N Engl J Med. 2006; 355: 1763-1771.
  • 6
    New York Early Lung Cancer Action Project Investigators. CT Screening for lung cancer: diagnoses resulting from the New York Early Lung Cancer Action Project. Radiology. 2007; 243: 239-249.
  • 7
    Moolgavkar SH, Luebeck G. Two-event model for carcinogenesis: biological, mathematical, and statistical considerations. Risk Anal. 1990:10:323-41.
  • 8
    Meza R, Hazelton WD, Colditz GA, Moolgavkar SH. Analysis of lung cancer incidence in the Nurses' Health and the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Studies using a multistage carcinogenesis model. Cancer Causes Control. 2008; 19: 317-328.
  • 9
    Hazelton WD, Clements MS, Moolgavkar SH. Multistage carcinogenesis and lung cancer mortality in three cohorts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005; 14: 1171-1181.
  • 10
    Heidenreich WF, Wellmann J, Jacob P, Wichmann HE. Mechanistic modeling in large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from smoking. Stat Med. 2002; 21: 3055-3070.
  • 11
    Heidenreich WF, Jacob P, Paretzke HG. Exact solutions of the clonal expansion model and their application to the incidence of solid tumors of atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Environ Biophys. 1997; 36: 45-58.
  • 12
    Spitz MR, Wu X, Wang Y, et al. Modulation of nucleotide excision repair capacity by XPD polymorphisms in lung cancer patients. Cancer Res. 2001; 61: 1354-1357.
  • 13
    Thun MJ, Myers DG, Day-Lally C, et al. Age and the exposure-response relationships between cigarette smoking and premature death in cancer prevention study II. In: Burns DM, Garfinkel L, Samet JM, eds. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 8: Changes in Cigarette-Related Disease Risk and Their Implication for Prevention and Control. NIH Pub. No. 97-4213. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health; 1997: 347-354.
  • 14
    Thomson CA, Harris RB, Craft NE, Hakim IA. A cross-sectional analysis demonstrated the healthy volunteer effect in smokers. J Clin Epidemiol. 2005; 58: 378-382.
  • 15
    Pinsky RF, Miller A, Kramer BS, et al. Evidence of a healthy volunteer effect in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Am J Epidemiol. 2007; 165: 874-881.
  • 16
    Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, Balmes J, et al. The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial: incidence of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality during 6-year follow-up after stopping beta-carotene and retinol supplements. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004; 96: 1743-1750.
  • 17
    Liddell FD. Simple exact analysis of the standardised mortality ratio. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1984; 38: 85-88.
  • 18
    Ederer F, Church TR, Mandel J. Sample sizes for prevention trials have been too small. Am J Epidemiol. 1993; 137: 787-796.
  • 19
    [no authors listed]. Final report on the aspirin component of the ongoing Physicians' Health Study. Steering Committee of the Physicians' Health Study Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1989; 321: 129-135.
  • 20
    McMahon PM, Kong CY, Johnson B, et al. Estimating long-term effectiveness of lung cancer screening in the Mayo CT screening study. Radiology. 2008; 248: 278-287.
  • 21
    Chien C, Chen TH. Mean sojourn time and effectiveness of mortality reduction for lung cancer screening with computed tomography. Int J Cancer. 2008; 122: 2594-2599.
  • 22
    Swenson SJ, Jett JR, Sloan JA, et al. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose spiral computed tomography. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002; 165: 508-513.
  • 23
    Bach PB, Jett JR, Pastorino U, Tockman MS, Swensen SJ, Begg CB. Computed tomography screening and lung cancer outcomes. JAMA. 2007; 297: 953-961.
  • 24
    Pastorini U, Bellomi M, Landoni C, et al. Early lung-cancer detection with spiral CT and positron emission tomography in heavy smokers: 2-year results. Lancet. 2003;362:593-597.
  • 25
    Zhukov TA, Johanson RA, Cantor AB, Clark RA, Tockman MS. Discovery of distinct protein profiles for lung tumors and pre-malignant lung lesions by SELDI mass spectrometry. Lung Cancer. 2003;40:267-279.