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Keywords:

  • prostate cancer;
  • radical prostatectomy;
  • radiation therapy;
  • androgen-deprivation therapy;
  • prostate-specific antigen

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The long-term survival of patients with high-risk prostate cancer was compared after radical prostatectomy (RRP) and after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).

METHODS:

In total, 1238 patients underwent RRP, and 609 patients received with EBRT (344 received EBRT plus ADT, and 265 received EBRT alone) between 1988 and 2004 who had a pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level ≥ 20 ng/mL, a biopsy Gleason score between 8 and 10, or clinical tumor classification ≥ T3. The median follow-up was 10.2 years, 6.0 years, and 7.2 years after RRP, EBRT plus ADT, and EBRT alone, respectively. The impact of treatment modality on systemic progression, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival was evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis and a competing risk-regression model.

RESULTS:

The 10-year cancer-specific survival rate was 92%, 92%, and 88% after RRP, EBRT plus ADT, and EBRT alone, respectively (P = .06). After adjustment for case mix, no significant differences in the risks of systemic progression (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-1.18; P = .23) or prostate cancer death (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.68-1.91; P = .61) were observed between patients who received EBRT plus ADT and patients who underwent RRP. The risk of all-cause mortality, however, was greater after EBRT plus ADT than after RRP (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.25-2.05; P = .0002).

CONCLUSIONS:

RRP alone and EBRT plus ADT provided similar long-term cancer control for patients with high-risk prostate cancer. The authors concluded that continued investigation into the differing impact of treatments on quality-of-life and noncancer mortality will be necessary to determine the optimal management approach for these patients. Cancer 2011. © 2011 American Cancer Society.