• 1
    Caplin S, Cerottini JP, Bosman FT, Constanda MT, Givel JC. For patients with Dukes' B (TNM stage II) colorectal carcinoma, examination of 6 or fewer lymph nodes is related to poor prognosis. Cancer. 1998; 83: 666-672.
  • 2
    Cianchi F, Palomba A, Boddi V, et al. Lymph node recovery from colorectal tumor specimens: recommendation for a minimum number of lymph nodes to be examined. World J Surg. 2002; 26: 384-389.
  • 3
    Sarli L, Bader G, Iusco D, et al. Number of lymph nodes examined and prognosis of TNM stage II colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2005; 41: 272-279.
  • 4
    Chang GJ, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Skibber JM, Moyer VA. Lymph node evaluation and survival after curative resection of colon cancer: systematic review. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007; 99: 433-441.
  • 5
    Le Voyer TE, Sigurdson ER, Hanlon AL, et al. Colon cancer survival is associated with increasing number of lymph nodes analyzed: a secondary survey of Intergroup Trial INT-0089. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 2912-2919.
  • 6
    Kim YW, Kim NK, Min BS, Lee KY, Sohn SK, Cho CH. The influence of the number of retrieved lymph nodes on staging and survival in patients with stage II and III rectal cancer undergoing tumor-specific mesorectal excision. Ann Surg. 2009; 249: 965-972.
  • 7
    Tepper JE, O'Connell MJ, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Impact of number of nodes retrieved on outcome in patients with rectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 157-163.
  • 8
    Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, Fritz AG, Greene FL, Trotti A, eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010.
  • 9
    Bosset JF, Calais G, Mineur L, et al. Enhanced tumorocidal effect of chemotherapy with preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: preliminary results—EORTC 22921. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 5620-5627.
  • 10
    Bosset JF, Collette L, Calais G, et al. Chemotherapy with preoperative radiotherapy in rectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006; 355: 1114-1123.
  • 11
    Das P, Crane CH. Preoperative and adjuvant treatment of localized rectal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep. 2006; 8: 167-173.
  • 12
    Sauer R, Becker H, Hohenberger W, et al. Preoperative versus postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 1731-1740.
  • 13
    Gerard JP, Conroy T, Bonnetain F, et al. Preoperative radiotherapy with or without concurrent fluorouracil and leucovorin in T3-4 rectal cancers: results of FFCD 9203. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 4620-4625.
  • 14
    Roh MS, Colangelo LH, O'Connell MJ, et al. Preoperative multimodality therapy improves disease-free survival in patients with carcinoma of the rectum: NSABP R-03. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 5124-5130.
  • 15
    Sermier A, Gervaz P, Egger JF, et al. Lymph node retrieval in abdominoperineal surgical specimen is radiation time-dependent [serial online]. World J Surg Oncol. 2006; 4: 29.
  • 16
    Wichmann MW, Muller C, Meyer G, et al. Effect of preoperative radiochemotherapy on lymph node retrieval after resection of rectal cancer. Arch Surg. 2002; 137: 206-210.
  • 17
    Baxter NN, Morris AM, Rothenberger DA, Tepper JE. Impact of preoperative radiation for rectal cancer on subsequent lymph node evaluation: a population-based analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005; 61: 426-431.
  • 18
    Nagtegaal ID, van de Velde CJ, van der Worp E, Kapiteijn E, Quirke P, van Krieken JH. Macroscopic evaluation of rectal cancer resection specimen: clinical significance of the pathologist in quality control. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 1729-1734.
  • 19
    Rullier A, Laurent C, Capdepont M, et al. Lymph nodes after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma: number, status, and impact on survival. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008; 32: 45-50.
  • 20
    American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Colon and Rectum. In Greene FL, Page DL, Fleming ID, et al. eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Handbook. 6th ed. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2002: 127-138.
  • 21
    Das P, Skibber JM, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, et al. Predictors of tumor response and downstaging in patients who receive preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancer. Cancer. 2007; 109: 1750-1755.
  • 22
    Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc. 1958; 53: 457-481.
  • 23
    Peto R, Peto J. Asymptotically efficient rank invariant test procedures. J R Stat Soc A. 1972; 135: 185-206.
  • 24
    Cox DR. Regression models and life tables. J R Stat Soc B. 1972; 34: 187-220.
  • 25
    Wong JH, Severino R, Honnebier MB, Tom P, Namiki TS. Number of nodes examined and staging accuracy in colorectal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 2896-2900.
  • 26
    Nelson H, Petrelli N, Carlin A, et al. Guidelines 2000 for colon and rectal cancer surgery. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 583-596.
  • 27
    Canessa CE, Badia F, Fierro S, Fiol V, Hayek G. Anatomic study of the lymph nodes of the mesorectum. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001; 44: 1333-1336.
  • 28
    Shen SS, Haupt BX, Ro JY, Zhu J, Bailey HR, Schwartz MR. Number of lymph nodes examined and associated clinicopathologic factors in colorectal carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009; 133: 781-786.
  • 29
    Marks JH, Valsdottir EB, Rather AA, Nweze IC, Newman DA, Chernick MR. Fewer than 12 lymph nodes can be expected in a surgical specimen after high-dose chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2010; 53: 1023-1029.
  • 30
    Taflampas P, Christodoulakis M, Gourtsoyianni S, Leventi K, Melissas J, Tsiftsis DD. The effect of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on lymph node harvest after total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52: 1470-1474.
  • 31
    Sprenger T, Rothe H, Homayounfar K, et al. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy does not necessarily reduce lymph node retrieval in rectal cancer specimens—results from a prospective evaluation with extensive pathological work-up. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010; 14: 96-103.
  • 32
    Sigurdson ER. Lymph node dissection: is it diagnostic or therapeutic? J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 965-967.
  • 33
    Thorn CC, Woodcock NP, Scott N, Verbeke C, Scott SB, Ambrose NS. What factors affect lymph node yield in surgery for rectal cancer? Colorectal Dis. 2004; 6: 356-361.
  • 34
    Gorog D, Nagy P, Peter A, Perner F. Influence of obesity on lymph node recovery from rectal resection specimens. Pathol Oncol Res. 2003; 9: 180-183.
  • 35
    Guillem JG, Diaz-Gonzalez JA, Minsky BD, et al. cT3N0 rectal cancer: potential overtreatment with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is warranted. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 368-373.
  • 36
    Mekenkamp LJ, van Krieken JH, Marijnen CA, van de Velde CJ, Nagtegaal ID. Lymph node retrieval in rectal cancer is dependent on many factors—the role of the tumor, the patient, the surgeon, the radiotherapist, and the pathologist. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009; 33: 1547-1553.
  • 37
    Wang H, Safar B, Wexner SD, Denoya P, Berho M. The clinical significance of fat clearance lymph node harvest for invasive rectal adenocarcinoma following neoadjuvant therapy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52: 1767-1773.
  • 38
    Kerwel TG, Spatz J, Anthuber M, Wunsch K, Arnholdt H, Markl B. Injecting methylene blue into the inferior mesenteric artery assures an adequate lymph node harvest and eliminates pathologist variability in nodal staging for rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52: 935-941.
  • 39
    Baxter NN, Virnig DJ, Rothenberger DA, Morris AM, Jessurun J, Virnig BA. Lymph node evaluation in colorectal cancer patients: a population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005; 97: 219-225.
  • 40
    Luna-Perez P, Rodriguez-Ramirez S, Alvarado I, Gutierrez de la Barrera M, Labastida S. Prognostic significance of retrieved lymph nodes per specimen in resected rectal adenocarcinoma after preoperative chemoradiation therapy. Arch Med Res. 2003; 34: 281-286.
  • 41
    Kim YW, Kim NK, Min BS, et al. The prognostic impact of the number of lymph nodes retrieved after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2009; 100: 1-7.