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Keywords:

  • prostate;
  • brachytherapy;
  • radiation;
  • cooperative group trial;
  • hormonal therapy

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Combined transperineal prostate brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is widely used for treatment of prostate cancer. Long-term efficacy and toxicity results of a multicenter phase 2 trial assessing combination of EBRT and transperineal prostate brachytherapy boost with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for intermediate-risk prostate cancer are presented.

METHODS:

Intermediate-risk patients per Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center/National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria received 6 months of ADT, and 45 grays (Gy) EBRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles, followed by transperineal prostate brachytherapy with I125 (100 Gy) or Pd103 (90 Gy). Toxicity was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 2 and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late radiation morbidity scoring systems. Disease-free survival (DFS) was defined as time from enrollment to progression (biochemical, local, distant, or prostate cancer death). In addition to the protocol definition of biochemical failure (3 consecutive prostate-specific antigen rises >1.0 ng/mL after 18 months from treatment start), the 1997 American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) consensus and Phoenix definitions were also assessed in defining DFS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate DFS and overall survival.

RESULTS:

Sixty-one of 63 enrolled patients were eligible. Median follow-up was 73 months. Late grade 2 and 3 toxicity, excluding sexual dysfunction, occurred in 20% and 3% of patients. Six-year DFS applying the protocol definition, 1997 ASTRO consensus, and Phoenix definitions was 87.1%, 75.1%, and 84.9%. Six deaths occurred; only 1 was attributed to prostate cancer. Six-year overall survival was 96.1%.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a cooperative setting, combination of EBRT and transperineal prostate brachytherapy boost plus ADT resulted in excellent DFS with acceptable late toxicity for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Cancer 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society.