• 1
    Manser R, Wright G, Hart D, Byrnes G, Campbell DA. Surgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; (1): CD004699.
  • 2
    Cerfolio RJ, Bryant AS, Eloubeidi MA. Routine mediastinoscopy and esophageal ultrasound fine-needle aspiration in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are clinically N2 negative: a prospective study. Chest. 2006; 130: 1791-1795.
  • 3
    Meyers BF, Haddad F, Siegel BA, et al. Cost-effectiveness of routine mediastinoscopy in computed tomography- and positron emission tomography-screened patients with stage I lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006; 31: 822-829, 2006; discussion 822-829.
  • 4
    Koike T, Tsuchiya R, Goya T, Sohara Y, Miyaoka E. Prognostic factors in 3315 completely resected cases of clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer in Japan. J Thorac Oncol. 2007; 2: 408-413.
  • 5
    Andre F, Grunenwald D, Pignon JP, et al. Survival of patients with resected N2 non-small-cell lung cancer: evidence for a subclassification and implications. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 2981-2989.
  • 6
    Rusch VW, Crowley J, Giroux DJ, et al. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: proposals for the revision of the N descriptors in the forthcoming seventh edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2007; 2: 603-612.
  • 7
    National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Version VI 2010. Jenkintown, Pa: NCCN; 2010.
  • 8
    Van Houtte P, Rocmans P, Smets P, et al. Postoperative radiation therapy in lung caner: a controlled trial after resection of curative design. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1980; 6: 983-986.
  • 9
    Effects of postoperative mediastinal radiation on completely resected stage II and stage III epidermoid cancer of the lung. The Lung Cancer Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1986; 315: 1377-1381.
  • 10
    Debevec M, Bitenc M, Vidmar S, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy for radically resected N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): randomised clinical study 1988-1992. Lung Cancer. 1996; 14: 99-107.
  • 11
    Stephens RJ, Girling DJ, Bleehen NM, Moghissi K, Yosef HM, Machin D. The role of post-operative radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre randomised trial in patients with pathologically staged T1-2, N1-2, M0 disease. Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party. Br J Cancer. 1996; 74: 632-639.
  • 12
    Lafitte JJ, Ribet ME, Prevost BM, Gosselin BH, Copin MC, Brichet AH. Postresection irradiation for T2 N0 M0 non-small cell carcinoma: a prospective, randomized study. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996; 62: 830-834.
  • 13
    Postoperative radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from 9 randomised controlled trials. PORT Meta-Analysis Trialists Group. Lancet. 1998; 352: 257-263.
  • 14
    PORT Meta-Analysis Trialists Group. Postoperative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; (2): CD002142.
  • 15
    Bogart JA, Aronowitz JN. Localized non-small cell lung cancer: adjuvant radiotherapy in the era of effective systemic therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2005; 11( 13 pt 2): 5004s-5010s.
  • 16
    Bonner JA. The role of postoperative radiotherapy for patients with completely resected nonsmall cell lung carcinoma: seeking to optimize local control and survival while minimizing toxicity. Cancer. 1999; 86: 195-196.
  • 17
    Hotta K, Matsuo K, Ueoka H, Kiura K, Tabata M, Tanimoto M. Role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer: reappraisal with a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 3860-3867.
  • 18
    Sedrakyan A, Van Der Meulen J, O'Byrne K, Prendiville J, Hill J, Treasure T. Postoperative chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004; 128: 414-419.
  • 19
    Horner MJ, Ries LAG, Krapcho M, et al. eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2006. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2008. Available at: Based on November 2008 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2009. [Accessed May 15, 2011.]
  • 20
    Warren JL, Klabunde CN, Schrag D, Bach PB, Riley GF. Overview of the SEER-Medicare data: content, research applications, and generalizability to the United States elderly population. Med Care. 2002; 40( 8 suppl): IV-3-IV-18.
  • 21
    Klabunde CN, Potosky AL, Legler JM, Warren JL. Development of a comorbidity index using physician claims data. J Clin Epidemiol. 2000; 53: 1258-1267.
  • 22
    Klabunde CN, Legler JM, Warren JL, Baldwin LM, Schrag D. A refined comorbidity measurement algorithm for claims-based studies of breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancer patients. Ann Epidemiol. 2007; 17: 584-590.
  • 23
    Groome PA, Bolejack V, Crowley JJ, et al. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: validation of the proposals for revision of the T, N, and M descriptors and consequent stage groupings in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours. J Thorac Oncol. 2007; 2: 694-705.
  • 24
    Cooper GS, Virnig B, Klabunde CN, Schussler N, Freeman J, Warren JL. Use of SEER-Medicare data for measuring cancer surgery. Med Care. 2002; 40( 8 suppl): IV-43-IV-8.
  • 25
    Virnig BA, Warren JL, Cooper GS, Klabunde CN, Schussler N, Freeman J. Studying radiation therapy using SEER-Medicare-linked data. Med Care. 2002; 40( 8 suppl): IV-49-IV-54.
  • 26
    Park CH, Bonomi M, Cesaretti J, Neugut AI, Wisnivesky JP. Effect of radiotherapy planning complexity on survival of elderly patients with unresected localized lung cancer [published online ahead of print October 5, 2010]. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010.
  • 27
    Goldsmith B, Cesaretti J, Wisnivesky J. Radiotherapy planning complexity and survival after treatment of advanced stage lung cancer in the elderly. Cancer. 2009; 115: 4865-4873.
  • 28
    Warren JL, Harlan LC, Fahey A, et al. Utility of the SEER-Medicare data to identify chemotherapy use. Med Care. 2002; 40( 8 suppl): IV-55-IV-61.
  • 29
    Brailer DJ, Kroch E, Pauly MV, Huang J. Comorbidity-adjusted complication risk: a new outcome quality measure. Med Care. 1996; 34: 490-505.
  • 30
    Iezzoni LI, Daley J, Heeren T, et al. Identifying complications of care using administrative data. Med Care. 1994; 32: 700-715.
  • 31
    Kalish RL, Daley J, Duncan CC, Davis RB, Coffman GA, Iezzoni LI. Costs of potential complications of care for major surgery patients. Am J Med Qual. 1995; 10: 48-54.
  • 32
    Rubin DB. Estimating causal effects from large data sets using propensity scores. Ann Intern Med. 1997; 127( 8 pt 2): 757-763.
  • 33
    Wei LJ, Lin DY, Weissfeld L. Regression analysis of multivariate incomplete failure time data by modeling marginal distributions. J Am Stat Assoc. 1989; 84: 1065-1073.
  • 34
    Earle CC, Tsai JS, Gelber RD, Weinstein MC, Neumann PJ, Weeks JC. Effectiveness of chemotherapy for advanced lung cancer in the elderly: instrumental variable and propensity analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 1064-1070.
  • 35
    Zeliadt SB, Potosky AL, Penson DF, Etzioni R. Survival benefit associated with adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy combined with radiotherapy for high- and low-risk patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006; 66: 395-402.
  • 36
    Wisnivesky JP, Halm E, Bonomi M, Powell C, Bagiella E. Effectiveness of radiation therapy for elderly patients with unresected stage I and II non-small cell lung cancer. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010; 181: 264-269.
  • 37
    Lally BE, Zelterman D, Colasanto JM, Haffty BG, Detterbeck FC, Wilson LD. Postoperative radiotherapy for stage II or III non-small-cell lung cancer using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 2998-3006.
  • 38
    Bekelman JE, Rosenzweig KE, Bach PB, Schrag D. Trends in the use of postoperative radiotherapy for resected non-small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006; 66: 492-499.
  • 39
    Sawyer TE, Bonner JA, Gould PM, et al. Effectiveness of postoperative irradiation in stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer according to regression tree analyses of recurrence risks. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997; 64: 1402-1407; discussion 1407-1408.
  • 40
    Machtay M, Lee JH, Shrager JB, Kaiser LR, Glatstein E. Risk of death from intercurrent disease is not excessively increased by modern postoperative radiotherapy for high-risk resected non-small-cell lung carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 3912-3917.
  • 41
    Douillard JY, Rosell R, De Lena M, Riggi M, Hurteloup P, Mahe MA. Impact of postoperative radiation therapy on survival in patients with complete resection and stage I, II, or IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy: the adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association (ANITA) randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008; 72: 695-701.