• 1
    Siegel R, Ward E, Brawley O, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011; 61: 212-236.
  • 2
    Siegel RL, Jemal A, Thun MJ, Hao Y, Ward EM. Trends in the incidence of colorectal cancer in relation to county-level poverty among blacks and whites. J Natl Med Assoc. 2008; 100: 1441-1444.
  • 3
    Singh GK, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Edwards BK. Area Socioeconomic Variations in U.S. Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Stage, Treatment, and Survival, 1975-1999. NCI Cancer Surveillance Monograph Series, Number 4. NIH Publication No. 03-5417. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2003.
  • 4
    Yin D, Morris C, Allen M, Cress R, Bates J, Liu L. Does socioeconomic disparity in cancer incidence vary across racial/ethnic groups? Cancer Causes Control. 2010; 21: 1721-1730.
  • 5
    Krieger N, Quesenberry CJr, Peng T, et al. Social class, race/ethnicity, and incidence of breast, cervix, colon, lung, and prostate cancer among Asian, black, Hispanic, and white residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, 1988-92 (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1999; 10: 525-537.
  • 6
    Brown J, Harding S, Bethune A, Rosato M. Longitudinal study of socio-economic differences in the incidence of stomach, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Popul Trends. 1998;( 94): 35-41.
  • 7
    Baquet CR, Horm JW, Gibbs T, Greenwald P. Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence among blacks and whites. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991; 83: 551-557.
  • 8
    Clegg LX, Reichman ME, Miller BA, et al. Impact of socioeconomic status on cancer incidence and stage at diagnosis: selected findings from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results: National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Cancer Causes Control. 2009; 20: 417-435.
  • 9
    Kim D, Masyn KE, Kawachi I, Laden F, Colditz GA. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and behavioral pathways to risks of colon and rectal cancer in women. Cancer. 2010; 116: 4187-4196.
  • 10
    Deng G, Kakar S, Tanaka H, et al. Proximal and distal colorectal cancers show distinct gene-specific methylation profiles and clinical and molecular characteristics. Eur J Cancer. 2008; 44: 1290-1301.
  • 11
    Freeman HJ. Heterogeneity of colorectal adenomas, the serrated adenoma, and implications for screening and surveillance. World J Gastroenterol. 2008; 14: 3461-3463.
  • 12
    Schatzkin A, Subar AF, Thompson FE, et al. Design and serendipity in establishing a large cohort with wide dietary intake distributions: the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2001; 154: 1119-1125.
  • 13
    Doubeni CA, Schootman M, Major JM, et al. Health Status, Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context, and Premature Mortality in the United States: the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Public Health. 2011; e1-e9 doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300158.
  • 14
    Major JM, Doubeni CA, Freedman ND, et al. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and mortality: NIH-AARP diet and health study. PLoS One. 2010; 5: e15538.
  • 15
    Thompson FE, Kipnis V, Midthune D, et al. Performance of a food-frequency questionnaire in the US NIH-AARP (National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study. Public Health Nutr. 2008; 11: 183-195.
  • 16
    Reedy J, Mitrou PN, Krebs-Smith SM, et al. Index-based dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 168: 38-48.
  • 17
    Frome EL. The analysis of rates using Poisson regression models. Biometrics. 1983; 39: 665-674.
  • 18
    American Cancer Society. Colorectal Cancer Facts and Figures 2010-2013. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2011.
  • 19
    Vainio H, Miller AB. Primary and secondary prevention in colorectal cancer. Acta Oncol. 2003; 42: 809-815.
  • 20
    Rex DK, Eid E. Considerations regarding the present and future roles of colonoscopy in colorectal cancer prevention. Clinical Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 6: 506-514.
  • 21
    Atkin W, Kralj-Hans I, Wardle J, Duffy S. Randomised trials of flexible sigmoidoscopy. BMJ. 2010; 341: c4618.
  • 22
    Mandel JS, Church TR, Bond JH, et al. The effect of fecal occult-blood screening on the incidence of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 1603-1607.
  • 23
    Brenner H, Hoffmeister M, Arndt V, Stegmaier C, Altenhofen L, Haug U. Protection from right- and left-sided colorectal neoplasms after colonoscopy: population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010; 102: 89-95.
  • 24
    Doubeni CA, Laiyemo AO, Klabunde CN, Young AC, Field TS, Fletcher RH. Racial and ethnic trends of colorectal cancer screening among Medicare enrollees. Am J Prev Med. 2010; 38: 184-191.
  • 25
    Doubeni CA, Laiyemo AO, Reed G, Field TS, Fletcher RH. Socioeconomic and racial patterns of colorectal cancer screening among Medicare enrollees in 2000 to 2005. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 2170-2175.
  • 26
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: Incidence—SEER 17 Registries Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, November 2009 Submission (1973-2007 varying). National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch. Released April 2010. Available at: Accessed on July 14, 2011.