Although most patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) exhibit bone marrow hypercellularity, a subset of them present with a hypocellular bone marrow. Specific factors associated with poor prognosis have not been investigated in patients with hypocellular MDS.
The authors studied a cohort of 253 patients with hypocellular MDS diagnosed at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1993 and 2007 and a cohort of 1725 patients with hyper-/normocellular MDS diagnosed during the same time period.
Patients with hypocellular MDS presented more frequently with thrombocytopenia (P < .019), neutropenia (P < .001), low serum β-2 microglobulin (P < .001), increased transfusion dependency (P < .001), and intermediate-2/high-risk disease (57% vs 42%, P = .02) compared with patients with hyper-/normocellular MDS. However, no difference in overall survival was observed between the 2 groups (P = .28). Multivariate analysis identified poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥2), low hemoglobin (<10 g/dL), unfavorable cytogenetics (−7/7q or complex), increased bone marrow blasts (≥5%), and high serum lactate dehydrogenase (>600 IU/L) as adverse independent factors for survival.
A new prognostic model based on these factors was built that segregated patients into 3 distinct risk categories independent of International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score. This model is independent from the IPSS, further refines IPSS-based prognostication, and may be used to develop of risk-adapted therapeutic approaches for patients with hypocellular MDS. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.