Antitumor T lymphocytes play an essential part in immune surveillance of cancer cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T cell activation and proliferation and therefore influences immune surveillance of carcinogenesis of pancreas. Thus, this study examined the association between functional CTLA-4 49G-to-A (49G>A) single-nucleotide polymorphism and pancreatic cancer risk.
Genotypes were determined in 368 patients with pancreatic cancer and 926 controls, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression.
A significant increased risk of pancreatic cancer was found to be associated with the CTLA-4 49G>A single-nucleotide polymorphism. Compared with noncarriers, the OR of developing pancreatic cancer for CTLA-4 49 GA or AA carriers was 1.75 (95% CI = 1.34-2.30, P = 4.83 × 10−5) or 2.54 (95% CI = 1.67-3.87, P = 1.36 × 10−5), respectively. In stratified analyses, the association was more pronounced in GA and AA carriers aged ≤60 years (OR = 3.10, 95% CI = 2.15-4.47, Pinteraction = .002), smokers with GA and AA genotypes (OR = 3.92, 95% CI = 2.39-6.43, Pinteraction = .037), and drinkers with GA and AA genotypes (OR = 4.55, 95% CI = 2.65-7.82, Pinteraction = .042), compared with GG carriers. Moreover, a supermultiplicative interaction between the CTLA-4 49AA genotype and smoking plus drinking was also evident in intensifying risk of pancreatic cancer (Pinteraction = 5.64 × 10−12).
These results suggest that CTLA-4 49G>A polymorphism is involved in susceptibility to developing pancreatic cancer, alone and in a gene–environment interaction manner. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.