• 1
    Gaillard S, Stearns V. Aromatase inhibitor-associated bone and musculoskeletal effects: new evidence defining etiology and strategies for management. Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13: 205.
  • 2
    Khan QJ, O'Dea AP, Sharma P. Musculoskeletal adverse events associated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitors. J Oncol. 2010;2010. doi: 10.1155/2010/654348.
  • 3
    Santen RJ. Effect of endocrine therapies on bone in breast cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96: 308-319.
  • 4
    Saad F, Adachi JD, Brown JP, et al. Cancer treatment-induced bone loss in breast and prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 5465-5476.
  • 5
    Francini G, Petrioli R, Montagnani A, et al. Exemestane after tamoxifen as adjuvant hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: effects on body composition and lipids. Br J Cancer. 2006; 95: 153-158.
  • 6
    Nissen MJ, Shapiro A, Swenson K. Changes in weight and body composition in women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2011; 11: 52-60.
  • 7
    Chen Z, Maricic M, Pettinger M, et al. Osteoporosis and rate of bone loss among postmenopausal survivors of breast cancer. Cancer. 2005; 104: 1520-1530.
  • 8
    Coleman RE, Body J-J, Gralow JR, Lipton A. Bone loss in patients with breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitors and associated treatment strategies. Cancer Treat Rev. 2008; 34( Suppl 1): S31-S42.
  • 9
    Edwards BJ, Raisch DW, Shankaran V, et al. Cancer therapy associated bone loss: Implications for hip fractures in mid-life women with breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17: 560-568.
  • 10
    Chen Z, Maricic M, Aragaki AK, et al. Fracture risk increases after diagnosis of breast or other cancers in postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative. Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20: 527-536.
  • 11
    Burstein HJ. Aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia syndrome. Breast. 2007; 16: 223-234.
  • 12
    Schmitz KH, Courneya KS, Matthews C, et al. American College of Sports Medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010; 42: 1409-1426.
  • 13
    Thurlimann B, Keshaviah A, Coates AS, et al. A comparison of letrozole and tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 2747-2757.
  • 14
    Jansson C JS, Lindh-Astrand L, Hoffmann M, Hammar M. The prevalence of symptoms possibly related to the climacteric in pre- and postmenopausal women in Linkoping, Sweden. Maturitas. 2003; 45: 129-135.
  • 15
    Xepapadakis G, Ntasiou P, Koronarchis D, et al. New views on treatment of aromatase inhibitors induced arthralgia. Breast. 2010; 19: 249-250.
  • 16
    Carlsten H. Immune responses and bone loss: the estrogen connection. Immunol Rev. 2005; 208: 194-206.
  • 17
    Dietrich W, Haitel A, Holzer G, Huber JC, Kolbus A, Tschugguel W. Estrogen receptor-beta is the predominant estrogen receptor subtype in normal human synovia. J Soc Gynecol Invest. 2006; 13: 512-517.
  • 18
    Craft RM. Modulation of pain by estrogens. Pain. 2007; 132: S3-S12.
  • 19
    Favaro-Moreira NC, Torres-Chavez KE, Fischer L, Tambeli CH. Peripheral estradiol induces temporomandibular joint antinociception in rats by activating the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway. Neuroscience. 2009; 164: 724-732.
  • 20
    Smith RE, Anderson SJ, Lembersky BC, Brown A, Mamounas E. Phase II trial of a doxorubicin/docetaxel doublet for locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer: results from national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project trial BP-57. Clin Breast Cancer. 2004; 5: 208-215.
  • 21
    Jones SE, Savin MA, Holmes FA, et al. Phase III trial comparing doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide with docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant therapy for operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 5381-5387.
  • 22
    National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Breast Cancer. Verson 2.2011. Available at: Accessed September 20, 2011.
  • 23
    Boccardo F, Rubagotti A, Guglielmini P, et al. Switching to anastrozole versus continued tamoxifen treatment of early breast cancer. Updated results of the Italian tamoxifen anastrozole (ITA) trial. Ann Oncol. 2006; 17( Suppl 7): vii10-vii14.
  • 24
    Coombes RC, Kilburn LS, Snowdon CF, et al. Survival and safety of exemestane versus tamoxifen after 2-3 years' tamoxifen treatment (Intergroup Exemestane Study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007; 369: 559-570.
  • 25
    Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, et al. A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349: 1793-1802.
  • 26
    Howell A, Cuzick J, Baum M, et al. Results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial after completion of 5 years' adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Lancet. 2005; 365: 60-62.
  • 27
    Jakesz R, Greil R, Gnant M, et al. Extended adjuvant therapy with anastrozole among postmenopausal breast cancer patients: results from the randomized Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group Trial 6a. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007; 99: 1845-1853.
  • 28
    Jakesz R, Jonat W, Gnant M, et al. Switching of postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer to anastrozole after 2 years' adjuvant tamoxifen: combined results of ABCSG trial 8 and ARNO 95 trial. Lancet. 2005; 366: 455-462.
  • 29
    Sestak I, Cuzick J, Sapunar F, et al. Risk factors for joint symptoms in patients enrolled in the ATAC trial: a retrospective, exploratory analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2008; 9: 866-872.
  • 30
    Ingle JN, Schaid DJ, Goss PE, et al. Genome-wide associations and functional genomic studies of musculoskeletal adverse events in women receiving aromatase inhibitors. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 4674-4682.
  • 31
    Dent S, Gaspo R, Kissner M, Pritchard K. Aromatase inhibitor therapy: toxicities and management strategies in the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 126: 295-310.
  • 32
    Morales L, Pans S, Paridaens R, et al. Debilitating musculoskeletal pain and stiffness with letrozole and exemestane: associated tenosynovial changes on magnetic resonance imaging. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007; 104: 87-91.
  • 33
    Moxley G. Rheumatic Disorders and Functional Disability With Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy. Clin Breast Cancer. 2010; 10: 144-147.
  • 34
    Hershman DL, Kushi LH, Shao T, et al. Early discontinuation and nonadherence to adjuvant hormonal therapy in a cohort of 8,769 early-stage breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 4120-4128.
  • 35
    van Herk-Sukel M, van de Poll-Franse L, Voogd A, Nieuwenhuijzen G, Coebergh J, Herings R. Half of breast cancer patients discontinue tamoxifen and any endocrine treatment before the end of the recommended treatment period of 5 years: a population-based analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 122: 843-851.
  • 36
    Blencowe NS, Reichl C, Gahir J, Paterson I. The use of Nolvadex in the treatment of generic Tamoxifen-associated small joint arthralgia. Breast. 2010; 19: 243-245.
  • 37
    Cuzick J, Forbes JF, Sestak I, et al. Long-term results of tamoxifen prophylaxis for breast cancer—96-month follow-up of the randomized IBIS-I trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007; 99: 272-82.
  • 38
    Powles TJ, Ashley S, Tidy A, Smith IE, Dowsett M. Twenty-year follow-up of the Royal Marsden randomized, double-blinded tamoxifen breast cancer prevention trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007; 99: 283-290.
  • 39
    Din OS, Dodwell D, Wakefield RJ, Coleman RE. Aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgia in early breast cancer: what do we know and how can we find out more? Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 120: 525-538.
  • 40
    Cleeland CS, Ryan KM. Pain assessment: global use of the Brief Pain Inventory. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1994; 23: 129-138.
  • 41
    Zhang Q, Tang D, Zhao H. Immunological therapies can relieve aromatase inhibitor-related joint symptoms in breast cancer survivors. Am J Clin Oncol. 2010; 33: 557-560.
  • 42
    Crew KD, Capodice JL, Greenlee H, et al. Randomized, blinded, sham-controlled trial of acupuncture for the management of aromatase inhibitor–associated joint symptoms in women with early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 1154-1160.
  • 43
    Saibil S, Fitzgerald B, Freedman OC, et al. Incidence of taxane-induced pain and distress in patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer: a retrospective, outcomes-based survey. Curr Oncol. 2010; 17: 42-47.
  • 44
    Bellamy N, Buchanan WW, Goldsmith CH, Campbell J, Stitt LW. Validation study of WOMAC: a health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient relevant outcomes to antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. J Rheumatol. 1988; 15: 1833-1840.
  • 45
    Sautner J, Andel I, Rintelen B, Leeb BF. Development of the M-SACRAH, a modified, shortened version of SACRAH (Score for the Assessment and Quantification of Chronic Rheumatoid Affections of the Hands). Rheumatology. 2004; 43: 1409-1413.
  • 46
    Beaton DE, Katz JN, Fossel AH, Wright JG, Tarasuk V, Bombardier C. Measuring the whole or the parts? Validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand outcome measure in different regions of the upper extremity. J Hand Ther. 2001; 14: 128-146.
  • 47
    Hayes SC, Rye S, Battistutta D, Newman B. Prevalence of upper-body symptoms following breast cancer and its relationship with upper-body function and lymphedema. Lymphology. 2010; 43: 178-187.
  • 48
    Lintermans A, Neven P. Pharmacology of arthralgia with estrogen deprivation. Steroids. 2011; 76: 781-785.
  • 49
    Cella D, Fallowfield LJ. Recognition and management of treatment-related side effects for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008; 107: 167-180.
  • 50
    Coleman RE, Bolten WW, Lansdown M, et al. Aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgia: clinical experience and treatment recommendations. Cancer Treat Rev. 2008; 34: 275-282.
  • 51
    Henry NL, Giles JT, Stearns V. Aromatase inhibitor-associated musculoskeletal symptoms: etiology and strategies for management. Oncology. 2008; 22: 1401-1408.
  • 52
    Mortimer JE. Managing the toxicities of the aromatase inhibitors. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 22: 56-60.
  • 53
    Wengstrom Y. Effectively nursing patients receiving aromatase inhibitor therapy. Breast. 2008; 17: 227-38.
  • 54
    Mouridsen HT. Incidence and management of side effects associated with aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006; 22: 1609-21.
  • 55
    Khan Q, Reddy P, Kimler B, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, joint pain, and fatigue in women starting adjuvant letrozole treatment for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 119: 111-118.
  • 56
    Prieto-Alhambra D, Javaid M, Servitja S, et al. Vitamin D threshold to prevent aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgia: a prospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 125: 869-878.
  • 57
    Rastelli A, Taylor M, Gao F, et al. Vitamin D and aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS): a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 129: 107-116.
  • 58
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2010.
  • 59
    Files JA, Ko MG, Pruthi S. Managing aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer survivors: not just for oncologists. Mayo Clinic Proc. 2010; 85: 560-566.
  • 60
    March L, Amatya B, Osborne RH, Brand C. Developing a minimum standard of care for treating people with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Best practice & research. Clin Rheumatol. 2010; 24: 121-145.
  • 61
    Messier SP, Loeser RF, Miller GD, et al. Exercise and dietary weight loss in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: the arthritis, diet, and activity promotion trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 50: 1501-1510.
  • 62
    Payne JK, Held J, Thorpe J, Shaw H. Effect of exercise on biomarkers, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and depressive symptoms in older women with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2008; 35: 635-642.
  • 63
    Hadji P, Ziller M, Albert US, Kalder M. Assessment of fracture risk in women with breast cancer using current vs emerging guidelines. Br J Cancer. 2010; 102: 645-650.
  • 64
    Gralow JR, Biermann JS, Farooki A, et al. NCCN Task Force Report: Bone Health in Cancer Care. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2009; 7( Suppl 3): S1-S32.
  • 65
    Twiss JJ, Gross GJ, Waltman NL, Ott CD, Lindsey AM. Health behaviors in breast cancer survivors experiencing bone loss. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2006; 18: 471-481.
  • 66
    Winters-Stone KM, Nail L, Bennett JA, Schwartz A. Bone health and falls: Fracture risk in breast cancer survivors with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2009; 36: 315-25.
  • 67
    Crandall C, Petersen L, Ganz PA, Greendale GA. Bone mineral density and adjuvant therapy in breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004; 88: 257-261.
  • 68
    Twiss JJ, Waltman N, Ott CD, Gross GJ, Lindsey AM, Moore TE. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2001; 13: 276-284.
  • 69
    Kalder M, Jager C, Seker-Pektas B, Dinas K, Kyvernitakis I, Hadji P. Breast cancer and bone mineral density: The Marburg Breast Cancer and Osteoporosis Trial (MABOT II). Climacteric. 2011; 14: 352-361.
  • 70
    Abrahamsen B, van Staa T, Ariely R, Olson M, Cooper C. Excess mortality following hip fracture: a systematic epidemiological review. Osteoporos Int. 2009; 20: 1633-1650.
  • 71
    Morin S, Lix L, Azimaee M, Metge C, Caetano P, Leslie W. Mortality rates after incident non-traumatic fractures in older men and women. Osteoporos Int 2011; 22: 2439-2448.
  • 72
    Chen Z, Maricic M, Bassford TL, et al. Fracture risk among breast cancer survivors: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165: 552-558.
  • 73
    Bruning PF, Pit MJ, de Jong-Bakker M, van den Ende A, Hart A, van Enk A. Bone mineral density after adjuvant chemotherapy for premenopausal breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1990; 61: 308-310.
  • 74
    Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Pritchard KI, et al. Adjuvant treatment and onset of menopause predict weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 120-129.
  • 75
    Delmas PD, Balena R, Confravreux E, Hardouin C, Hardy P, Bremond A. Bisphosphonate risedronate prevents bone loss in women with artificial menopause due to chemotherapy of breast cancer: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15: 955-962.
  • 76
    Saarto T, Blomqvist C, Valimaki M, Makela P, Sarna S, Elomaa I. Clodronate improves bone mineral density in post-menopausal breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant antioestrogens. Br J Cancer. 1997; 75: 602-605.
  • 77
    Shapiro CL, Manola J, Leboff M. Ovarian failure after adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with rapid bone loss in women with early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 3306-3311.
  • 78
    Vehmanen L, Saarto T, Elomaa I, Makela P, Valimaki M, Blomqvist C. Long-term impact of chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure on bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal breast cancer patients. The effect of adjuvant clodronate treatment. Eur J Cancer. 2001; 37: 2373-2378.
  • 79
    Pouilles JM, Tremollieres F, Ribot C. Effect of menopause on femoral and vertebral bone loss. J Bone Miner Res. 1995; 10: 1531-1536.
  • 80
    Fogelman I, Blake GM, Blamey R, et al. Bone mineral density in premenopausal women treated for node-positive early breast cancer with 2 years of goserelin or 6 months of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF). Osteoporos Int. 2003; 14: 1001-1006.
  • 81
    Greep NC, Giuliano AE, Hansen NM, Taketani T, Wang H-J, Singer FR. The effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on bone density in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Am J Med. 2003; 114: 653-659.
  • 82
    Hadji P, Ziller M, Maskow C, Albert U, Kalder M. The influence of chemotherapy on bone mineral density, quantitative ultrasonometry and bone turnover in pre-menopausal women with breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2009; 45: 3205-3212.
  • 83
    Cameron D, Douglas S, Brown J, Anderson R. Bone mineral density loss during adjuvant chemotherapy in pre-menopausal women with early breast cancer: is it dependent on oestrogen deficiency? Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 23: 805-814.
  • 84
    Georgiou KR, Scherer MA, Fan C-M, et al. Methotrexate chemotherapy reduces osteogenesis but increases adipogenesis potential in the bone marrow [published online ahead of print April 18, 2011]. J Cell Physiol. doi: 10.1002/jcp.22807.
  • 85
    Rodriguez-Rodriguez L-M, Rodriguez-Rodriguez E-Ma, Oramas-Rodriguez J-M, et al. Changes on bone mineral density after adjuvant treatment in women with non-metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005; 93: 75-83.
  • 86
    Carlson K, Simonsson B, Ljunghall S. Acute effects of high-dose chemotherapy followed by bone marrow transplantation on serum markers of bone metabolism. Calcif Tissue Int. 1996; 55: 408-411.
  • 87
    Friedlaender GE, Tross RB, Doganis AC, et al. Effects of chemotherapeutic agents on bone. Bone Joint Surg. 1984; 66A: 602-607.
  • 88
    Irwin ML, Crumley D, McTiernan A, et al. Physical activity levels before and after a diagnosis of breast carcinoma: the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Cancer. 2003; 97: 1746-1757.
  • 89
    Kristensen B, Ejlertsen B, Dalgaard P, et al. Tamoxifen and bone metabolism in postmenopausal low-risk breast cancer patients: a randomized study. J Clin Oncol. 1994; 12: 992-997.
  • 90
    Saarto T, Vehmanen L, Elomaa I, Valimaki M, Makela P, Blomqvist C. The effect of clodronate and antioestrogens on bone loss associated with oestrogen withdrawal in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2001; 84: 1047-1051.
  • 91
    Love RR, Mazess RB, Barden HS, et al. Effects of tamoxifen on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1992; 326: 852-856.
  • 92
    Marttunen MB, Hietanen P, Titinen A, Roth HJ, Viinikka L, Ylikorkala O. Effects of tamoxifen and toremifene on urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline and bone density in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Calcif Tissue Int. 1999; 65: 365-368.
  • 93
    Sverrisdottir A, Fornander T, Jacobsson H, von Schoultz E, Rutqvist LE. Bone mineral density among premenopausal women with early breast cancer in a randomized trial of adjuvant endocrine therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 3694-3699.
  • 94
    Vehmanen L, Elomaa I, Blomqvist C, Saarto T. Tamoxifen treatment after adjuvant chemotherapy has opposite effects on bone mineral density in premenopausal patients depending on menstrual status. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 675-680.
  • 95
    Coates AS, Keshaviah A, Thurlimann B, et al. Five years of letrozole compared with tamoxifen as initial adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: update of study BIG 1-98. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 486-492.
  • 96
    Coleman RE, Banks LM, Girgis SI, et al. Skeletal effects of exemestane on bone-mineral density, bone biomarkers, and fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer participating in the Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES): a randomised controlled study. Lancet Oncol. 2007; 8: 119.
  • 97
    Howell A, Cuzick J, Baum M, et al.; ATAC Trialists' Group. Results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial after completion of 5 years' adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Lancet. 2005; 365: 60-62.
  • 98
    Goss PE, Ingle JN, Ales-Martínez JE, et al. Exemestane for breast-cancer prevention in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 2381-2391.
  • 99
    Bouxsein ML, Courtney AC, Hayes WC. Ultrasound and densitometry of the calcaneus correlate with the failure loads of cadaveric femurs. Calcif Tissue Int 1995; 56: 99-103.
  • 100
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC. Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. Lancet. 1993; 341: 72-75.
  • 101
    Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H. Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. Br Med J. 1996; 312: 1254-1259.
  • 102
    Eckstein F, Lochmuller EM, Lill CA, et al. Bone strength at clinically relevant sites displays substantial heterogeneity and is best predicted from site-specific bone densitometry. J Bone Miner Res. 2002; 17: 162-171.
  • 103
    Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2010; 17: 25-54.
  • 104
    Eastell R. Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338: 736-746.
  • 105
    Kanis JA. Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk. Lancet. 2002; 359: 1929-1936.
  • 106
    Siris ES, Baim S, Nattiv A. Primary care use of FRAX: absolute fracture risk assessment in postmenopausal women and older men. Postgrad Med. 2010; 122: 82-90.
  • 107
    Leslie W, Majumdar S, Lix L, et al. High fracture probability with FRAX usually indicates densitometric osteoporosis: implications for clinical practice. Osteoporos Int. 2012; 23: 391-397.
  • 108
    Tremollieres FA, Pouilles J-M, Drewniak N, Laparra J, Ribot CA, Dargent-Molina P. Fracture risk prediction using BMD and clinical risk factors in early postmenopausal women: sensitivity of the WHO FRAX tool. J Bone Min Res. 2010; 25: 1002-1009.
  • 109
    Alonso CG, Curiel MD, Carranza FH, Cano RP, Perez AD. Femoral bone mineral density, neck-shaft angle and mean femoral neck width as predictors of hip fracture in men and women. Multicenter Project for Research in Osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11: 714-720.
  • 110
    Baim S, Binkley N, Bilezikian JP, et al. Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and executive summary of the 2007 ISCD Position Development Conference. J Clin Densitom. 2008; 11: 75-91.
  • 111
    Nairus J, Ahmadi S, Baker S, Baran D. Quantitative ultrasound: an indicator of osteoporosis in perimenopausal women. J Clin Densitom. 2000; 3: 141-147.
  • 112
    Gluer C-C. Quantitative ultrasound techniques for the assessment of osteoporosis-expert agreement on current status. J Bone Min Res. 1997; 12: 1280-1288.
  • 113
    Garnero P. Biomarkers for osteoporosis management: utility in diagnosis, fracture risk prediction and therapy monitoring. Mol Diagn Ther. 2008; 12: 157-170.
  • 114
    Hadji P, Asmar L, van Nes J, et al. The effect of exemestane and tamoxifen on bone health within the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial: a meta-analysis of the US, German, Netherlands, and Belgium sub-studies. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011; 137: 1015-1025.
  • 115
    Riggs B, Melton LJ,3rd. Bone turnover matters: the raloxifene treatment paradox of dramatic decreases in vertebral fractures without commensurate increases in bone density. J Bone Miner Res. 2002; 17: 11-14.
  • 116
    Hillner BE, Ingle JN, Chlebowski RT, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology 2003 update on the role of bisphosphonates and bone health issues in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 4042-4057.
  • 117
    US Preventive Services Task Force (USPST). Screening for Osteoporosis: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med. 2011; 154: 356-364.
  • 118
    Hadji P, Aapro MS, Body JJ, et al. Management of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: practical guidance for prevention and treatment. Ann Oncol. 2011; 22: 2546-2555.
  • 119
    Kohrt WM, Bloomfield SA, Little KD, Nelson ME, Yingling VR. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: physical activity and bone health. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004; 36: 1985-1996.
  • 120
    Martyn-St James M, Carroll S. A meta-analysis of impact exercise on postmenopausal bone loss: the case for mixed loading exercise programmes. Br J Sports Med. 2009; 43: 898-908.
  • 121
    Martyn-St James M, Carroll S. Meta-analysis of walking for preservation of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Bone. 2008; 43: 521-531.
  • 122
    Martyn-St James M, Carroll S. High-intensity resistance training and postmenopausal bone loss: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17: 1225-1240.
  • 123
    Martyn-St James M, Carroll S. Progressive high-intensity resistance training and bone mineral density changes among premenopausal women: evidence of discordant site-specific skeletal effects. Sports Med. 2006; 36: 683-704.
  • 124
    Winters-Stone KM, Schwartz A, Nail LM. A review of exercise interventions to improve bone health in adult cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv. 2010; 4: 187-201.
  • 125
    Schwartz AL, Winters-Stone K, Gallucci B. Exercise effects on bone mineral density in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2007; 34: 627-633.
  • 126
    Pruitt L, Taaffe D, Marcus R. Effects of a one-year high-intensity versus low-intensity resistance training program on bone mineral density in older women. J Bone Miner Res. 1995; 10: 1788-1795.
  • 127
    American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41: 687-708.
  • 128
    Winters-Stone K, Snow C. Site-specific response of bone to exercise in premenopausal women. Bone. 2006; 39: 1203-1209.
  • 129
    Swenson KK, Nissen MJ, Anderson E, Shapiro A, Schousboe J, Leach J. Effects of exercise vs bisphosphonates on bone mineral density in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. J Support Oncol. 2009; 7: 101-107.
  • 130
    Irwin ML, Alvarez-Reeves M, Cadmus L, et al. Exercise improves body fat, lean mass, and bone mass in breast cancer survivors. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009; 17: 1534-1541.
  • 131
    Rogers LQ, Hopkins-Price P, Vicari S, et al. A randomized trial to increase physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009; 41: 935-946.
  • 132
    Waltman NL, Twiss JJ, Ott CD, et al. The effect of weight training on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors with bone loss: a 24-month randomized controlled trial. Osteoporos Int. 2010; 21: 1361-1369.
  • 133
    Winters-Stone K, Dobek J, Nail L, Bennett JA, Naik A, Schwartz A. Strength training stops bone loss and builds muscle in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 27: 447-456.
  • 134
    Wolff I, van Croonenborg J, Kemper H, Kostense P, Twisk J. The effect of exercise training programs on bone mass: a meta-analysis of published controlled trials in pre- and postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 1999; 9: 1-12.
  • 135
    Kelley GA. Aerobic exercise and bone density at the hip in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis. Prev Med. 1998; 27: 798-807.
  • 136
    Berard A, Bravo G, Gauthier P. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of physical activity for the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 1997; 7: 331-337.
  • 137
    Kelley G. Aerobic exercise and lumbar spine bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998; 46: 143-152.
  • 138
    Frost HM. Should fracture risk-of-fracture analyses include another major risk factor? The case for falls. J Clin Densitom. 2001; 4: 381-383.
  • 139
    Winters-Stone K, Torgrimson B, Horak F, et al. Identifying risk factors for falls in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a multidisciplinary approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011; 92: 646-652.
  • 140
    Panel on Prevention of Falls in Older Persons American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society. Summary of the Updated American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society clinical practice guideline for prevention of falls in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011; 59: 148-157.
  • 141
    Harmer PA, Li F. Tai Chi and falls prevention in older people. Med Sport Sci. 2008; 52: 124-134.