• 1
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA. 2010; 303: 235-241.
  • 2
    Ryan DH, Kushner R. The state of obesity and obesity research. JAMA. 2010; 304: 1835-1836.
  • 3
    Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, Heller RF, Zwahlen M. Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet. 2008; 371: 569-578.
  • 4
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009; 59: 225-249.
  • 5
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005; 55: 74-108.
  • 6
    Protani M, Coory M, Martin JH. Effect of obesity on survival of women with breast cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 123: 627-635.
  • 7
    Dignam JJ, Wieand K, Johnson KA, Fisher B, Xu L, Mamounas EP. Obesity, tamoxifen use, and outcomes in women with estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 1467-1476.
  • 8
    Dignam JJ, Wieand K, Johnson KA, et al. Effects of obesity and race on prognosis in lymph node-negative, estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006; 97: 245-254.
  • 9
    Sparano JA, Fazzari M, Kenny PA. Clinical application of gene expression profiling in breast cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2010; 19: 581-606.
  • 10
    Sorlie T, Tibshirani R, Parker J, et al. Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100: 8418-8423.
  • 11
    Sorlie T, Perou CM, Tibshirani R, et al. Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001; 98: 10869-10874.
  • 12
    Hammond ME, Hayes DF, Dowsett M, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College Of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 2784-2795.
  • 13
    Wolff AC, Hammond ME, Schwartz JN, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 118-145.
  • 14
    Nielsen TO, Hsu FD, Jensen K, et al. Immunohistochemical and clinical characterization of the basal-like subtype of invasive breast carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10: 5367-5374.
  • 15
    Sparano JA, Wang M, Martino S, et al. Weekly paclitaxel in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 1663-1671.
  • 16
    Davidson NE, O'Neill AM, Vukov AM, et al. Chemoendocrine therapy for premenopausal women with axillary lymph node-positive, steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: results from INT 0101 (E5188). J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 5973-5982.
  • 17
    Fetting JH, Gray R, Fairclough DL, et al. Sixteen-week multidrug regimen versus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil as adjuvant therapy for node-positive, receptor-negative breast cancer: an Intergroup study. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 2382-2391.
  • 18
    Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, et al. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 1673-1684.
  • 19
    Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Procter M, Leyland-Jones B, et al. Trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353: 1659-1672.
  • 20
    Gray RJ. Spline-based tests in survival analysis. Biometrics. 1994; 50: 640-652.
  • 21
    Fine JP, Gray RJ. A proportional hazards model for the subdistribution of a competing risk. J Am Stat Assoc. 1999; 94: 496-509.
  • 22
    Ewertz M, Jensen MB, Gunnarsdottir KA et al. Effect of obesity on prognosis after early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29: 25-31.
  • 23
    Saphner T, Tormey DC, Gray R. Annual hazard rates of recurrence for breast cancer after primary therapy. J Clin Oncol. 1996; 14: 2738-2746.
  • 24
    Majed B, Moreau T, Senouci K, Salmon RJ, Fourquet A, Asselain B. Is obesity an independent prognosis factor in woman breast cancer? Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008; 111: 329-342.
  • 25
    de Azambuja E, McCaskill-Stevens W, Francis P, et al. The effect of body mass index on overall and disease-free survival in node-positive breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel and doxorubicin-containing adjuvant chemotherapy: the experience of the BIG 02-98 trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 119: 145-153.
  • 26
    Sestak I, Distler W, Forbes JF, Dowsett M, Howell A, Cuzick J. Effect of body mass index on recurrences in tamoxifen and anastrozole treated women: an exploratory analysis from the ATAC trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 3411-3415.
  • 27
    Schelbert KB. Comorbidities of obesity. Prim Care. 2009; 36: 271-285.
  • 28
    Sparano JA, Gray R, Goldstein LJ, et al. Gene expression profiling of phenotypically-defined hormone-receptor positive breast cancer: evidence for increased transcriptional activity of the insulin growth factor receptor pathway and other pathways [abstract]. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009. Abstract 5165.
  • 29
    Yee D, Lee AV. Crosstalk between the insulin-like growth factors and estrogens in breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2000; 5: 107-115.
  • 30
    Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Bahl M, et al. High insulin levels in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients reflect underlying insulin resistance and are associated with components of the insulin resistance syndrome. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009; 114: 517-525.
  • 31
    Irwin ML, Duggan C, Wang CY, et al. Fasting C-peptide levels and death resulting from all causes and breast cancer: the health, eating, activity, and lifestyle study. J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29: 47-53.
  • 32
    Pasanisi P, Berrino F, De Petris M, Venturelli E, Mastroianni A, Panico S. Metabolic syndrome as a prognostic factor for breast cancer recurrences. Int J Cancer. 2006; 119: 236-238.
  • 33
    Lunardi G, Del Mastro L, Bighin C, et al and Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM). Effects of body mass index (BMI) on plasma levels of estrone sulfate (ES) in postmenopausal women with breast cancer (BC) during letrozole (L) treatment [abstract]. ASCO Meeting Abstracts. 2011; Vol. 29, No 15_suppl (May 20 Supplement): Abstract 515.
  • 34
    Egle D, Oberguggenberger A, Achleitner R, et al. Do obese women benefit less from adjuvant endocrine therapy with aromatase inhibitors? Preliminary analysis on the association of BMI and aromatase inhibitor plasma levels [abstract]. ASCO Meeting Abstracts. 2011; Vol 29, No 15_suppl (May 20 Supplement), 2011: e11118.
  • 35
    Chlebowski RT, Blackburn GL, Thomson CA, et al. Dietary fat reduction and breast cancer outcome: interim efficacy results from the Women's Intervention Nutrition Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98: 1767-1776.
  • 36
    Pierce JP, Natarajan L, Caan BJ, et al. Influence of a diet very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial. JAMA. 2007; 298: 289-298.
  • 37
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTG). Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet. 2005; 365: 1687-1717.
  • 38
    Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359: 229-241.