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Population-based case-control study of recreational drug use and testis cancer risk confirms an association between marijuana use and nonseminoma risk†
Article first published online: 10 SEP 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society
Volume 118, Issue 21, pages 5374–5383, 1 November 2012
How to Cite
Lacson, J. C. A., Carroll, J. D., Tuazon, E., Castelao, E. J., Bernstein, L. and Cortessis, V. K. (2012), Population-based case-control study of recreational drug use and testis cancer risk confirms an association between marijuana use and nonseminoma risk. Cancer, 118: 5374–5383. doi: 10.1002/cncr.27554
The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the authors, and endorsement by the State of California, Department of Health Services, the National Cancer Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their contractors and subcontractors is not intended nor should be concluded.
Fax: (323) 865-0134
- Issue published online: 19 OCT 2012
- Article first published online: 10 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 2 FEB 2012
- Manuscript Received: 30 SEP 2011
- testicular germ cell tumors;
- amyl nitrite;
- recreational drug use;
Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) incidence increased steadily in recent decades, but causes remain elusive. Germ cell function may be influenced by cannabinoids, and 2 prior epidemiologic studies reported that the use of marijuana may be associated with nonseminomatous TGCT. Here, the authors evaluate the relation between TGCTs and exposure to marijuana and other recreational drugs using a population-based case-control study.
In total, 163 patients who were diagnosed with TGCT in Los Angeles County from December 1986 to April 1991 were enrolled, and 292 controls were matched on age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood. Participants were asked about drug use by a structured, in-person interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for history of cryptorchidism; education; religiosity; and reported use of marijuana, cocaine, and amyl nitrite.
Compared with never use, ever use of marijuana had a 2-fold increased risk (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.02-3.68), whereas ever use of cocaine had a negative association with TGCT (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32-0.91). Stratification on tumor histology revealed a specific association of marijuana use with nonseminoma and mixed histology tumors (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.08-5.42).
A specific association was observed between marijuana use and the risk of nonseminoma and mixed tumors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a negative association between cocaine use and TGCT risk. The current results warrant mechanistic studies of marijuana's effect on the endocannabinoid system and TGCT risk and caution that recreational and therapeutic use of cannabinoids by young men may confer malignant potential to testicular germ cells. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.