SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Roos BA, Okano K, Deftos LJ. Evidence for a pro-calcitonin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1974; 60: 1134-1140.
  • 2
    Muller B, White JC, Nylen ES, Snider RH, Becker KL, Habener JF. Ubiquitous expression of the calcitonin-i gene in multiple tissues in response to sepsis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86: 396-404.
  • 3
    Le Moullec JM, Jullienne A, Chenais J, et al. The complete sequence of human preprocalcitonin. FEBS Lett. 1984; 167: 93-97.
  • 4
    Assicot M, Gendrel D, Carsin H, Raymond J, Guilbaud J, Bohuon C. High serum procalcitonin concentrations in patients with sepsis and infection. Lancet. 1993; 341: 515-518.
  • 5
    Dandona P, Nix D, Wilson MF, et al. Procalcitonin increase after endotoxin injection in normal subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994; 79: 1605-1608.
  • 6
    Meisner M, Schmidt J, Huttner H, Tschaikowsky K. The natural elimination rate of procalcitonin in patients with normal and impaired renal function. Intensive Care Med. 2000; 26( suppl 2): S212-S216.
  • 7
    Sakr Y, Sponholz C, Tuche F, Brunkhorst F, Reinhart K. The role of procalcitonin in febrile neutropenic patients: review of the literature. Infection. 2008; 36: 396-407.
  • 8
    Bodey GP, Buckley M, Sathe YS, Freireich EJ. Quantitative relationships between circulating leukocytes and infection in patients with acute leukemia. Ann Intern Med. 1966; 64: 328-340.
  • 9
    Ilhan N, Ilhan Y, Akbulut H, Kucuksu M. C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor and oxidative metabolites in diagnosis of infection and staging in patients with gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2004; 10: 1115-1120.
  • 10
    Ito S, Sato N, Kojika M, et al. Serum procalcitonin levels are elevated in esophageal cancer patients with postoperative infectious complications. Eur Surg Res. 2005; 37: 22-28.
  • 11
    Browder AA, Huff JW, Petersdorf RG. The significance of fever in neoplastic disease. Ann Intern Med. 1961; 55: 932-942.
  • 12
    Zell JA, Chang JC. Neoplastic fever: a neglected paraneoplastic syndrome. Support Care Cancer. 2005; 13: 870-877.
  • 13
    Annane D, Bellissant E, Cavaillon JM. Septic shock. Lancet. 2005; 365: 63-78.
  • 14
    Jimeno A, García-Velasco A, del Val O, et al. Assessment of procalcitonin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with solid tumors and febrile neutropenia. Cancer. 2004; 100: 2462-2469.
  • 15
    Engel A, Steinbach G, Kern P, Kern WV. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin serum levels in neutropenic patients with fever: comparison with interleukin-8. Scand J Infect Dis. 1999; 31: 185-189.
  • 16
    Giamarellou H, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Repoussis P, et al. Potential use of procalcitonin as a diagnostic criterion in febrile neutropenia: experience from a multicentre study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004; 10: 628-633.
  • 17
    von Lilienfeld-Toal M, Dietrich MP, Glasmacher A, et al. Markers of bacteremia in febrile neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies: procalcitonin and IL-6 are more reliable than C-reactive protein. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004; 23: 539-544.
  • 18
    Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Grecka P, Poulakou G, Anargyrou K, Katsilambros N, Giamarellou H. Assessment of procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker of underlying infection in patients with febrile neutropenia. Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 32: 1718-1725.
  • 19
    Persson L, Engervall P, Magnuson A, et al. Use of inflammatory markers for early detection of bacteraemia in patients with febrile neutropenia. Scand J Infect Dis. 2004; 36: 365-371.
  • 20
    Secmeer G, Devrim I, Kara A, et al. Role of procalcitonin and CRP in differentiating a stable from a deteriorating clinical course in pediatric febrile neutropenia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007; 29: 107-111.
  • 21
    Kim DY, Lee YS, Ahn S, Chun YH, Lim KS. The usefulness of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as early diagnostic markers of bacteremia in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 43: 176-180.
  • 22
    Koivula I, Hämäläinen S, Jantunen E, et al. Elevated procalcitonin predicts Gram-negative sepsis in haematological patients with febrile neutropenia. Scand J Infect Dis. 2011; 43: 471-478.
  • 23
    Prat C, Sancho JM, Dominguez J, et al. Evaluation of procalcitonin, neopterin, C-reactive protein, IL-6 and IL-8 as a diagnostic marker of infection in patients with febrile neutropenia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008; 49: 1752-1761.
  • 24
    Gac AC, Parienti JJ, Chantepie S, et al. Dynamics of procalcitonin and bacteremia in neutropenic adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Res. 2011; 35: 1294-1296.
  • 25
    Fleischhack G, Kambeck I, Cipic D, Hasan C, Bode U. Procalcitonin in paediatric cancer patients: its diagnostic relevance is superior to that of C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, soluble interleukin 2 receptor and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor II. Br J Haematol. 2000; 111: 1093-1102.
  • 26
    Jones AE, Fiechtl JF, Brown MD, Ballew JJ, Kline JA. Procalcitonin test in the diagnosis of bacteremia: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50: 34-41.
  • 27
    Schuetz P, Mueller B, Trampuz A. Serum procalcitonin for discrimination of blood contamination from bloodstream infection due to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Infection. 2007; 35: 352-355.
  • 28
    Leibovici L, Shraga I, Drucker M, Konigsberger H, Samra Z, Pitlik SD. The benefit of appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with bloodstream infection. J Intern Med. 1998; 244: 379-386.
  • 29
    Muller F, Christ-Crain M, Bregenzer T, et al. Procalcitonin levels predict bacteremia in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective cohort trial. Chest. 2010; 138: 121-129.
  • 30
    Kallio R, Surcel HM, Bloigu A, Syrjala H. C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and interleukin-8 in the primary diagnosis of infections in cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 2000; 36: 889-894.
  • 31
    Ghillani PP, Motte P, Troalen F, et al. Identification and measurement of calcitonin precursors in serum of patients with malignant diseases. Cancer Res. 1989; 49: 6845-6851.
  • 32
    Matzaraki V, Alexandraki KI, Venetsanou K, et al. Evaluation of serum procalcitonin and interleukin-6 levels as markers of liver metastasis. Clin Biochem. 2007; 40: 336-342.
  • 33
    Brunkhorst FM, Wegscheider K, Forycki ZF, Brunkhorst R. Procalcitonin for early diagnosis and differentiation of SIRS, sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Intensive Care Med. 2000; 26( suppl 2): S148-S152.
  • 34
    Castelli GP, Pognani C, Meisner M, Stuani A, Bellomi D, Sgarbi L. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein during systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis and organ dysfunction. Crit Care. 2004; 8: R234-R242.
  • 35
    Luzzani A, Polati E, Dorizzi R, Rungatscher A, Pavan R, Merlini A. Comparison of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as markers of sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2003; 31: 1737-1741.
  • 36
    Meisner M, Tschaikowsky K, Palmaers T, Schmidt J. Comparison of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma concentrations at different SOFA scores during the course of sepsis and MODS. Crit Care. 1999; 3: 45-50.
  • 37
    Rangel-Frausto MS, Pittet D, Costigan M, Hwang T, Davis CS, Wenzel RP. The natural history of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A prospective study. JAMA. 1995; 273: 117-123.
  • 38
    Monroe S, Polk R. Antimicrobial use and bacterial resistance. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2000; 3: 496-501.
  • 39
    Kopterides P, Siempos II, Tsangaris I, Tsantes A, Armaganidis A. Procalcitonin-guided algorithms of antibiotic therapy in the intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Care Med. 2010; 38: 2229-2241.
  • 40
    Schuetz P, Chiappa V, Briel M, Greenwald JL. Procalcitonin algorithms for antibiotic therapy decisions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and recommendations for clinical algorithms. Arch Intern Med. 2011; 171: 1322-1331.
  • 41
    von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP; STROBE Initiative. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Lancet. 2007; 370: 1453-1457.
  • 42
    Mancini N, Carletti S, Ghidoli N, Cichero P, Burioni R, Clementi M. The era of molecular and other non-culture-based methods in diagnosis of sepsis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010; 23: 235-251.