Prospective study on metabolic factors and risk of prostate cancer

Authors

  • Christel Häggström MSc,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
    • Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå University, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden

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    • Fax: (011) 46-90-125396

  • Tanja Stocks PhD,

    1. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
    2. Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • David Ulmert MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
    2. Department of Surgery, Urology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York
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  • Tone Bjørge MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    2. Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo/Bergen, Norway
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  • Hanno Ulmer PhD,

    1. Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
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  • Göran Hallmans MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
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  • Jonas Manjer MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Plastic Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
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  • Anders Engeland PhD,

    1. Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    2. Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo/Bergen, Norway
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  • Gabriele Nagel MD, PhD,

    1. Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
    2. Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Bregenz, Austria
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  • Martin Almqvist MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
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  • Randi Selmer PhD,

    1. Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo/Bergen, Norway
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  • Hans Concin MD,

    1. Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Bregenz, Austria
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  • Steinar Tretli PhD,

    1. Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-based Cancer Research, Oslo, Norway
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  • Håkan Jonsson PhD,

    1. Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology Center, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
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  • Pär Stattin MD, PhD

    1. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
    2. Department of Surgery, Urology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York
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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There are inconsistent data regarding the association between metabolic factors, separately and combined, and the risk of prostate cancer and death from prostate cancer.

METHODS:

In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project (Me-Can), data on body mass index (BMI); blood pressure; and blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected for 289,866 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate relative risks (RRs) by exposures in quintiles as well as for z scores (with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1) together with a composite sum of scores to assess the combined effect of metabolic factors. RRs were corrected for random errors in measurement.

RESULTS:

During a mean follow-up of 12 years, 6673 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 961 died of the disease. Men with high levels of glucose and triglycerides were found to have a decreased risk of prostate cancer: top versus bottom quintile of glucose: RR, 0.82 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.62-1.08; P value for trend = .03) and top versus bottom quintile of triglycerides: RR, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.74-1.04; P value for trend = .001). High BMI, elevated blood pressure, and a high composite z score were found to be associated with an increased risk of death from prostate cancer: top versus bottom quintile of BMI: RR, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.08-1.71); systolic blood pressure: RR, 1.62 (95% CI, 1.07-2.45); and per 1-unit increase of the composite z score: RR, 1.13 (95% CI, 1.03-1.25).

CONCLUSIONS:

The authors found no evidence of an association between high levels of metabolic factors and the risk of prostate cancer, but high BMI, elevated blood pressure, and a composite score of all metabolic factors were associated with an increased risk of death from prostate cancer. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.

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