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Keywords:

  • neuroendocrine tumors;
  • neuroendocrine neoplasm;
  • gastroenteric tract;
  • prognosis;
  • classification;
  • TNM;
  • World Health Organization

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Gastroenteric neuroendocrine neoplasms (GE-NENs) display highly variable clinical behavior. In an attempt to assess a better prognostic description, in 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated its previous classification, and the European Neuroendocrine Tumors Society (ENETS) proposed a new grading and TNM-based staging system. In the current study, the authors evaluated the prognostic significance of these models and compared their efficacy in describing patients' long-term survival to assess the best prognostic model currently available for clinicians.

METHODS:

The study cohort was composed of 145 patients with extrapancreatic GE-NEN who were observed from 1986 to 2008 at a single center and were classified according to the WHO and ENETS classifications. Survival evaluations were performed using Kaplan-Meyer analyses on 131 patients. Only deaths from neoplasia were considered. A P value < .05 was considered significant. Prognostic efficacy was assessed by determining the Harrell concordance index (c-index).

RESULTS:

Both the 2010 WHO and the ENETS classification were able to efficiently divide patients into classes with different prognoses. According to the model comparison, the ENETS TNM-based staging system appeared to be the strongest. All combined models were effective prognostic predictors, but the model that included the 2010 WHO classification plus ENETS staging had a higher c-index.

CONCLUSIONS:

Both the 2010 WHO classification and the ENETS staging system are valid instruments for GE-NENs prognostic assessment, with TNM-based stage appearing to be the best available choice for clinicians, both alone and in association with other classifications. Cancer 2013. © 2012 American Cancer Society.