• 1
    Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012; 62: 10-29.
  • 2
    Mitra AP, Lin H, Datar RH, et al. Molecular biology of bladder cancer: prognostic and clinical implications. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2006; 5: 67-77.
  • 3
    Birkhahn M, Mitra AP, Cote RJ. Molecular markers for bladder cancer: the road to a multimarker approach. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2007; 7: 1717-1727.
  • 4
    Mitra AP, Almal AA, George B, et al. The use of genetic programming in the analysis of quantitative gene expression profiles for identification of nodal status in bladder cancer. BMC Cancer. 2006; 6: 159.
  • 5
    Mitra AP, Pagliarulo V, Yang D, et al. Generation of a concise gene panel for outcome prediction in urinary bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27: 3929-3937.
  • 6
    Birkhahn M, Mitra AP, Williams AJ, et al. Predicting recurrence and progression of noninvasive papillary bladder cancer at initial presentation based on quantitative gene expression profiles. Eur Urol. 2010; 57: 12-20.
  • 7
    Mitra AP, Cote RJ. Molecular pathogenesis and diagnostics of bladder cancer. Annu Rev Pathol. 2009; 4: 251-285.
  • 8
    Hussain SA, Ganesan R, Hiller L, et al. Proapoptotic genes BAX and CD40L are predictors of survival in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Br J Cancer. 2003; 88: 586-592.
  • 9
    Karam JA, Lotan Y, Karakiewicz PI, et al. Use of combined apoptosis biomarkers for prediction of bladder cancer recurrence and mortality after radical cystectomy. Lancet Oncol. 2007; 8: 128-136.
  • 10
    Yin W, Chen N, Zhang Y, et al. Survivin nuclear labeling index: a superior biomarker in superficial urothelial carcinoma of human urinary bladder. Mod Pathol. 2006; 19: 1487-1497.
  • 11
    Esrig D, Elmajian D, Groshen S, et al. Accumulation of nuclear p53 and tumor progression in bladder cancer. N Engl J Med. 1994; 331: 1259-1264.
  • 12
    Stein JP, Ginsberg DA, Grossfeld GD, et al. Effect of p21WAF1/CIP1 expression on tumor progression in bladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998; 90: 1072-1079.
  • 13
    Chatterjee SJ, Datar R, Youssefzadeh D, et al. Combined effects of p53, p21, and pRb expression in the progression of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 1007-1013.
  • 14
    Shariat SF, Tokunaga H, Zhou J, et al. p53, p21, pRB, and p16 expression predict clinical outcome in cystectomy with bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 1014-1024.
  • 15
    Eltze E, Wülfing C, Von Struensee D, Piechota H, Buerger H, Hertle L. Cox-2 and Her2/neu co-expression in invasive bladder cancer. Int J Oncol. 2005; 26: 1525-1531.
  • 16
    Chow NH, Liu HS, Chan SH, et al. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in primary superficial bladder cancer. Anticancer Res. 1999; 19: 4593-4597.
  • 17
    Inoue K, Slaton JW, Karashima T, et al. The prognostic value of angiogenesis factor expression for predicting recurrence and metastasis of bladder cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy. Clin Cancer Res. 2000; 6: 4866-4873.
  • 18
    Popov Z, Gil-Diez de Medina S, Lefrere-Belda MA, et al. Low E-cadherin expression in bladder cancer at the transcriptional and protein level provides prognostic information. Br J Cancer. 2000; 83: 209-214.
  • 19
    Liu L, Zhang J, Deapen D. Cancer in Los Angeles County: incidence and mortality by race/ethnicity, 1988-2009. Accessed May 28, 2012.
  • 20
    Urinary bladder. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, Fritz AG, Greene FL, Trotti A, editors. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th edition. New York, NY: Springer; 2010: 497-506.
  • 21
    Mostofi FK, Sobin HL, Torlini H. Histologic Typing of Urinary Bladder Tumours. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1973.
  • 22
    Castelao JE, Yuan JM, Skipper PL, et al. Gender- and smoking-related bladder cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 538-545.
  • 23
    Miller RG Jr, Gong G, Munoz A. Survival analysis. In: Applied Probability and Statistics. Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics. New York, NY: Wiley; 1981: 44-102.
  • 24
    Klein JP, Moeschberger ML. Hypothesis testing. In: Survival Analysis: Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. New York, NY: Springer; 2003: 201-242.
  • 25
    Berry G, Kitchin RM, Mock PA. A comparison of two simple hazard ratio estimators based on the logrank test. Stat Med. 1991; 10: 749-755.
  • 26
    Metz CE, Wang PL, Kronman HB. A new approach for testing the significance of differences between ROC curves measured from correlated data. In: Deconinck F, editor. Information Processing in Medical Imaging. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff; 1984: 432-445.
  • 27
    Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Cohort studies. In: Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL, editors. Modern Epidemiology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008: 100-110.
  • 28
    Mitra AP, Datar RH, Cote RJ. Molecular pathways in invasive bladder cancer: new insights into mechanisms, progression, and target identification. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 5552-5564.
  • 29
    Mitra AP, Birkhahn M, Cote RJ. p53 and retinoblastoma pathways in bladder cancer. World J Urol. 2007; 25: 563-571.
  • 30
    Cote RJ, Esrig D, Groshen S, Jones PA, Skinner DG. p53 and treatment of bladder cancer. Nature. 1997; 385: 123-125.
  • 31
    Stadler WM, Lerner SP, Groshen S, et al. Phase III study of molecularly targeted adjuvant therapy in locally advanced urothelial cancer of the bladder based on p53 status. J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29: 3443-3449.