• 1
    Singh GK, Williams SD, Siahpush M, Mulhollen A. Socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US cancer mortality: part I-all cancers and lung cancer and part II-colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers [serial online]. J Cancer Epidemiol. 2011; 2011: 107497.
  • 2
    Tropman SE, Hatzell T, Paskett E, Ricketts T, Cooper MR, Aldrich T. Colon cancer treatment in rural North and South Carolina. Cancer Detect Prev. 1999; 23: 428-434.
  • 3
    Tropman SE, Ricketts TC, Paskett E, Hatzell TA, Cooper MR, Aldrich T. Rural breast cancer treatment: evidence from the Reaching Communities for Cancer Care (REACH) project. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1999; 56: 59-66.
  • 4
    Sariego J. Patterns of breast cancer presentation in the United States: does geography matter? Am Surg. 2009; 75: 545-549.
  • 5
    Nattinger AB, Gottlieb MS, Veum J, Yahnke D, Goodwin JS. Geographic variation in the use of breast-conserving treatment for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1992; 326: 1102-1107.
  • 6
    Rowland JH, Mariotto A, Alfano CM, Pollack LA, Weir HK, White A. Cancer survivors—United States, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011; 60: 269-272.
  • 7
    US Census Bureau. Census 2000 Summary File 1, Matrix P1. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau; 2010.
  • 8
    Geography Division, US Census Bureau. Census 2000 Urban and Rural Classification. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau; 2009. Available at: Accessed March 17, 2012.
  • 9
    Beck SL, Towsley GL, Caserta MS, Lindau K, Dudley WN. Symptom experiences and quality of life of rural and urban older adult cancer survivors. Cancer Nurs. 2009; 32: 359-369.
  • 10
    Arcury TA, Preisser JS, Gesler WM, Powers JM. Access to transportation and health care utilization in a rural region. J Rural Health. 2005; 21: 31-38.
  • 11
    Glover S, Moore CG, Samuels ME, Probst JC. Disparities in access to care among rural working-age adults. J Rural Health. 2004; 20: 193-205.
  • 12
    Muskie School of Public Services, Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Health Insurance Coverage in Rural America. Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation; 2003. Available at: Accessed June 13, 2011.
  • 13
    Laditka JN, Laditka SB, Probst JC. Health care access in rural areas: evidence that hospitalization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions in the United States may increase with the level of rurality. Health Place. 2009; 15: 731-740.
  • 14
    Burris JL, Andrykowski M. Disparities in mental health between rural and nonrural cancer survivors: a preliminary study. Psychooncology. 2010; 19: 637-645.
  • 15
    Schultz AA, Winstead-Fry P. Predictors of quality of life in rural patients with cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2001; 24: 12-19.
  • 16
    National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey, 2010 [machine readable data file and documentation]. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011.
  • 17
    Ware JEJr, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care. 1992; 30: 473-483.
  • 18
    Kessler R, Andrews G, Colpe L, et al. Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychol Med. 2002; 32: 959-976.
  • 19
    Dhingra SS, Strine TW, Holt JB, Berry JT, Mokdad AH. Rural-urban variations in psychological distress: findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2007. Int J Public Health. 2009; 54( S1): 16-22.
  • 20
    Dhingra SS, Zack MM, Strine TW, Druss BG, Berry JT, Balluz LS. Psychological distress severity of adults reporting receipt of treatment for mental health problems in the BRFSS. Psychiatr Serv. 2011; 62: 396-403.
  • 21
    Galea S, Brewin CR, Gruber M, et al. Exposure to hurricane-related stressors and mental illness after Hurricane Katrina. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007; 64: 1427.
  • 22
    Deshpande AD, McQueen A, Coups EJ. Different effects of multiple health status indicators on breast and colorectal cancer screening in a nationally representative US sample. Cancer Epidemiol. 2012; 36: 270-275.
  • 23
    Fagan HB, Myers RE, Daskalakis C, Sifri R, Mainous AGIII, Wender R. Race/ethnicity, gender, weight status, and colorectal cancer screening [serial online]. J Obes. 2011; 2011: 314619.
  • 24
    Pratt LA. Serious psychological distress, as measured by the K6, and mortality. Ann Epidemiol. 2009; 19: 202-209.
  • 25
    Kessler RC, Barker PR, Colpe LJ, et al. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60: 184-189.
  • 26
    Beck SL, Towsley GL, Caserta MS, Lindau K, Dudley WN. Symptom experience of rural and urban older adult cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2005; 32: 359-369.
  • 27
    DiSipio T, Hayes SC, Newman B, Aitken J, Janda M. Does quality of life among breast cancer survivors 1 year after diagnosis differ depending on urban and non-urban residence? A comparative study [serial online]. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2010; 8: 3.
  • 28
    Hewitt M, Rowland JH, Yancik R. Cancer survivors in the United States: age, health, and disability. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003; 58: M82-M91.
  • 29
    Larson SL, Hill SC. Rural-urban differences in employment-related health insurance. J Rural Health. 2005; 21: 21-30.
  • 30
    Sabatino SA, Coates RJ, Uhler RJ, Alley LG, Pollack LA. Health insurance coverage and cost barriers to needed medical care among U.S. adult cancer survivors aged <65 years. Cancer. 2006; 106: 2466-2475.
  • 31
    Office of Health Policy, US Department of Health and Human Services. Overview of the uninsured in the United States: a summary of the 2011 Current Population Survey. Available at: Accessed March 7, 2012.
  • 32
    Thorpe JM, Thorpe CT, Kennelty KA, Pandhi N. Patterns of perceived barriers to medical care in older adults: a latent class analysis [serial online]. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011; 11: 181.
  • 33
    Chan L, Hart LG, Goodman DC. Geographic access to health care for rural Medicare beneficiaries. J Rural Health. 2006; 22: 140-146.
  • 34
    Anja M. Employment and work-related issues in cancer survivors. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2011; 77: 109-130.
  • 35
    de Boer AGEM, Taskila T, Ojajarvi A, van Dijk FJH, Verbeek JHAM. Cancer survivors and unemployment. JAMA. 2009; 301: 753-762.
  • 36
    Economic Research Service USDA. Rural America at a Glance. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture; 2011.
  • 37
    Fronczek P, Johnson P. Occupations: 2000. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau, US Department of Commerce; 2003.
  • 38
    Hewitt M, Breen N, Devesa S. Cancer prevalence and survivorship issues: analyses of the 1992 National Health Interview Survey. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91: 1480-1486.
  • 39
    Parikh-Patel A, Allen M, Wright WE; the California Teachers Study Steering Committee. Validation of self-reported cancers in the California Teachers Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2003; 157: 539-545.
  • 40
    Parry C, Kent EE, Mariotto AB, Alfano CM, Rowland JH. Cancer survivors: a booming population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prevent. 2011; 20: 1996-2005.
  • 41
    Howlader N, Noone A, Krapcho M, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2008. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2011. Available at: Accessed March 7, 2012.