SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • allogeneic stem cell transplantation;
  • antithymocyte globulin;
  • reduced-intensity conditioning;
  • graft-versus-host disease;
  • relapse

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS
  6. DISCUSSION
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. FUNDING SOURCES
  9. REFERENCES

BACKGROUND:

The optimal combination of fludarabine, busulfan, and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantation has not been established. ATG plays a pivotal role in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), but it is associated with a higher relapse rate and an elevated incidence of infections when high doses are used.

METHODS:

The authors retrospectively compared 2 different doses of ATG combined with fludarabine and busulfan in 229 adult patients who underwent transplantation at their institution. ATG was administered over 1 day (FBA1) or over 2 days (FBA2) at a daily dose of 2.5 mg/kg.

RESULTS:

There were 124 patients in the FBA2 cohort and 105 patients in the FBA2 cohorts. Patients in the FBA2 cohort were older and more frequently underwent transplantation from an unrelated donor; 93% of patients in the FBA2 cohort received intravenous busulfan versus only 5% in the FBA1 cohort. The incidence of grade 2 through 4 acute GvHD was 23% in the FBA2 cohort versus 42% in the FBA1 cohort (P = .002); the incidence of grade 3 through 4 acute GvHD was 10% versus 23%, respectively (P = .006); and the incidence of chronic GvHD was 35% versus 69%, respectively (P < .0001). The 2-year rates of overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse/progression for the FBA1 and FBA2 cohorts were 65% versus 67%, respectively (P = .99), 20% versus 19%, respectively (P = .61), and 30% versus 19%, respectively (P = .09). The results were confirmed in multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS:

The use of ATG at a dose of 5 mg/kg was correlated significantly with reduced incidence and severity of GvHD without impairing disease control. Taken together, the current results suggest that this conditioning represents a step forward in the optimization of RIC. Cancer 2013. © 2012 American Cancer Society.


INTRODUCTION

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS
  6. DISCUSSION
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. FUNDING SOURCES
  9. REFERENCES

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC-AlloSCT) is an alternative option for patients who are not fit for a myeloablative (MA) preparation.1-3 In this setting, the combination of fludarabine, busulfan, and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is widely used.1, 4-6 It is known that ATG is effective in preventing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)7-9; however, because of in vivo T-cell depletion, ATG is associated with a potential risk of increasing the relapse probability10-12; therefore, titration of the dose is crucial.13, 14 Whereas an ATG dose in the range of 10 mg/kg appears to be associated with loss of disease control,4 we recently reported that a 2.5 mg/kg total dose did not preclude patients presenting with high rates of severe acute GvHD (aGvHD) and chronic GvHD (cGvHD).15 An intermediate dose of approximately 4.5 mg/kg reportedly delivers satisfactory GvHD prevention and antitumor effects.16, 17

Given these data, we decided to increase the dose of ATG in our recently reported conditioning regimen15 with the objective of optimizing the prevention of potential complications and maintaining disease control. In the current report, we retrospectively compare the outcome of 229 consecutive patients who received treatment at our center with 2 different doses of ATG, 2.5 mg/kg (n = 124 [the FBA1 cohort]) and 5 mg/kg (n = 105 [the FBA2 cohort]), in combination with 5 to 6 days of fludarabine and 2 days of busulfan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS
  6. DISCUSSION
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. FUNDING SOURCES
  9. REFERENCES

Conditioning for the FBA1 cohort consisted of oral busulfan (1 mg/kg every 6 hours on days −4 and −3; Myleran, GlaxoSmithKline, Marly-le-Roi, France), rabbit ATG (2.5 mg/kg on day −3; Thymoglobuline; Genzyme, St. Germain-en-Lay, France), and fludarabine (30 mg/m2 daily from day −6 or −5 to day −1; Fludara; Bayer Sante, Puteaux, France). For patients in the FBA2 cohort, busulfan was mainly administered as an intravenous formulation (0.8 mg/kg every 6 hours on days −4 and −3; Busilvex; Pierre Fabre, Boulogne-Billancourt, France) in combination with 2 days of ATG (2.5 mg/kg daily on days −2 and −1) and fludarabine as specified above. GvHD prophylaxis was mainly realized by cyclosporine alone, and supportive care was performed in accordance with previously reported procedures.15 All patients with hematologic malignancies who received the FBA1 or FBA2 regimen between January 1, 2000 and January 30, 2010 were included in the study. Diseases were classified according to the risk of relapse.18 Patients underwent RIC-AlloSCT according to our institutional policy. All donors were human leukemic antigen (HLA)-matched (related or unrelated) or mismatched (unrelated with 1 HLA mismatch). The graft source was peripheral blood stem cells harvested after the administration of granulocyte–colony-stimulating factor. This study was approved by the Paoli-Calmettes Institute review board.

Statistical Analysis

The primary objective of the study was to assess the incidence of aGvHD and cGvHD with the newer FBA2 regimen. Other endpoints were overall survival (OS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and progression.

Categorical variables are expressed as proportions, and continuous variables are expressed as the median with the respective range. Comparisons between groups were performed with the chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Survival outcomes were calculated from the date of transplantation. NRM was defined as death without evidence of disease progression or relapse, and death after disease progression was treated as a competing event in the NRM analyses. The incidence of aGvHD and cGvHD was estimated considering disease progression or death as competing events. Patients without an event were censored at their last contact date, except with respect to aGvHD incidence (day 100). The Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models19, 20 were used for the OS analyses. Hazard ratios were estimated with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Prentice estimation, the Gray test, and Fine and Gray models21, 22 were used for the NRM, relapse/progression, and aGvHD and cGvHD analyses. When investigating its impact on survival outcomes, aGvHD was treated as a time-dependent covariate. Estimates are given at 2 years after transplantation, unless otherwise specified. aGvHD was graded according to the criteria published by Glucksberg et al,23 and cGvHD was classified as either limited or extensive.24 A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the impact of the conditioning regimen relative to the main pretransplantation and peritransplantation variables (patient and donor age and sex, diagnosis, disease status at transplantation, comorbidities, year of AlloSCT, donor type, total cell surface glycoprotein [cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34)]-positive and T-cell coreceptor [CD3]-positive counts infused with the graft). Models were built when the ATG dose was associated with the outcome of interest with a significance of P ≤ .10 in univariate analysis. P values ≤ .05 were considered significant. The statistical software packages SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill) and R version 2.12.0 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) were used for statistical analyses.

RESULTS

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS
  6. DISCUSSION
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. FUNDING SOURCES
  9. REFERENCES

Data from 229 consecutive adult patients were entered into the analysis of the 2 study cohorts: FBA1 and FBA2. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3-108 months) for the patients who remained alive. Their primary characteristics are provided in Table 1. The 2 cohorts differed significantly in the length of observation time, donor sex, and busulfan formulation. Moreover, patients in the FBA2 cohort were significantly older, received a graft with higher CD34-positive and lower CD3-positive counts, and more frequently underwent transplantation from an unrelated donor than patients in the FBA1 cohort. Diagnoses were distributed equally except for chronic myeloid leukemia, which was more frequent in the FBA1 cohort (P = .02). No significant differences in disease risk were observed between the 2 cohorts: low-risk, standard-risk, and high-risk diseases were distributed equally between the 2 groups (see Table 1).

Table 1. Patient and Transplantation Characteristics
 No. of Patients (%) 
VariableFBA1, n = 124FBA2, n = 105P
  • Abbreviations: ALL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia; AlloSCT, allogenic stem cell transplantation; AML, acute myeloid leukemia; ATG, antithymocyte globulin; CD3, cluster of differentiation molecule 3 (T-cell coreceptor); CD34, cluster of differentiation molecule 34 (cell surface glycoprotein); CLL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia; CML, chronic myeloid leukemia; CsA, cyclosporine A; FBA1, fludarabine-busulfan-antithymocyte globulin 1-day group; FBA2, fludarabine-busulfan-antithymocyte globulin 2-day group; MDS, myelodysplastic syndrome; MM, multiple myeloma; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; MPS, myeloproliferative syndrome; NHL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma; NS, nonsignificant.

  • a

    These were significant P values.

  • b

    This P value was not significant for all diagnoses except for CML where P = .02.

Follow-up, mo   
 Median6519<.0001a
 95% CI60-7314-26 
Age: Median [range], y51 [18-70]58 [24-68]<.0001a
Sex   
 Patients  .29
  Men77 (62)57 (54) 
  Women47 (38)48 (46) 
 Donors  .03a
  Men63 (51)69 (66) 
  Women61 (49)36 (34) 
Median year of transplantation [range]2004 [2000-2007]2008 [2003-2010]<.0001a
Diagnosis  NSb
 AML45 (36)36 (34) 
 ALL2 (2)5 (5) 
 CML10 (8)1 (1) 
 MPS5 (4)5 (5) 
 MDS9 (7)9 (8) 
 CLL5 (4)5 (5) 
 NHL23 (18)19 (18) 
 Hodgkin lymphoma6 (5)5 (5) 
 MM17 (14)20 (19) 
 Waldenstrom2 (2)0 (0) 
Disease status at AlloSCT  .63
 Low23 (19)24 (23) 
 Standard71 (57)54 (51) 
 High30 (24)27 (26) 
Median comorbidity score [range]1.5 [0-8]2 [0-7].13
Conditioning regimen   
 Oral busulfan118 (95)8 (7)<.0001a
 Intravenous busulfan6 (5)97 (93) 
Donor type   
 Sibling122 (98)65 (62)<.0001a
 Unrelated2 (2)40 (38) 
CsA109 (88)96 (91).51
CsA+MMF15 (12)9 (9) 
CD34-positive: Median [range], ×10e6/kg [range]5.5 [1.5-22.2]6.5 [1.0-10.8].03a
CD3-positive: Median [range], ×10e6/kg [range]3.12 [0.84-8.87]2.74 [0.60-6.29].009a

The cumulative incidence of grade 2 through 4 aGvHD differed significantly between the 2 groups and was 42% (95% CI, 33%-51%) in the FBA2 cohort and 23% (95% CI, 15%-31%) in the FBA2 cohort (P = .002) (Fig. 1, top). This difference persisted when considering grade 3 through 4 aGvHD, for which the cumulative incidence was 23% (95% CI, 15%-30%) and 10% (95% CI, 4%-15%) in the FBA1 and FBA2 cohorts, respectively (P = .006) (Fig. 1, bottom).

thumbnail image

Figure 1. The cumulative incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is illustrated according to antithymocyte globulin (ATG) treatment group among patients with (Top) grade 2 through 4 acute GvHD and (Bottom) grade 3 or 4 GvHD. FBA1 indicates the fludarabine-busulfan-ATG 1-day treatment group; FBA2, the fludarabine-busulfan-ATG 2-day treatment group.

Download figure to PowerPoint

The cumulative incidence of cGvHD was 69% (95% CI, 61%-78%) in the FBA1 cohort and 35% (95% CI, 25%-45%) in the FBA2 cohort (P < .0001) (Fig. 2). The extensive form of cGvHD occurred more frequently in the FBA1 cohort compared with the FBA2 cohort (56% vs 23%; P < .0001). cGvHD occurred a median of 121 days after transplantation among all patients, but it occurred significantly later in the FBA2 cohort (FBA1 cohort, 111 days; FBA2 cohort, 148 days; P < .0001).

thumbnail image

Figure 2. The cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease is illustrated according to antithymocyte globulin (ATG) treatment. FBA1 indicates the fludarabine-busulfan-ATG 1-day treatment group; FBA2, the fludarabine-busulfan-ATG 2-day treatment group.

Download figure to PowerPoint

The OS rate at 3 years was 63% (95% CI, 56%-70%) for the whole patient series; no difference in survival probability was observed between the 2 cohorts (P = .99). Sixty-five patients (52%) in the FBA1 cohort and 77 patients (73%) in the FBA2 cohort were alive at the last follow-up (Fig. 3).

thumbnail image

Figure 3. Overall survival is illustrated for the 2 antithymocyte globulin (ATG) treatment cohorts. FBA1 indicates the fludarabine-busulfan-ATG 1-day treatment group; FBA2, the fludarabine-busulfan-ATG 2-day treatment group.

Download figure to PowerPoint

Thirty-two patients died of NRM in the FBA1 cohort compared with 16 patients in the FBA2 cohort (P = .07; chi-square test). The cumulative incidence of NRM was 20% (95% CI, 11%-29%) in the FBA2 cohort and 19% (95% CI, 12%-26%) in the FBA1 cohort (P = .61). The causes of NRM are detailed in Table 2. In total, 29 events of relapse or progression were observed in the FBA1 cohort compared with 27 events in the FBA2 cohort, and the cumulative incidence was 19% (95% CI, 12%-26%) and 30% (95% CI, 20%-40%), respectively (P = .09). We observed a correlation between the patient's disease risk group and relapse/progression incidence in the multivariate analysis, as expected: the hazard ratio was 3.00 (95% CI, 1.06-8.47) for high-risk versus low risk disease (P = .04), and the hazard ratio was 1.56 (95% CI, 0.58-4.15) for standard-risk versus low-risk disease (P = .37).

Table 2. Causes of Nonrelapse Mortality According to Treatment With 1 Day or 2 Days of Combined Fludarabine, Busulfan, and Antithymocyte Globulin
 No. of Patients (%)
Cause of NRMFBA1FBA2
  • Abbreviations: aGvHD, acute graft-versus-host disease; cGvHD, chronic graft-versus-host disease; FBA1, fludarabine-busulfan-antithymocyte globulin 1-day group; FBA2, fludarabine-busulfan-antithymocyte globulin 2-day group; MOF, multiorgan failure; NRM, nonrelapse mortality.

  • a

    Thirty-one patients received allografts from sibling donors, and 1 patient received an allograft from an unrelated donor.

  • b

    Ten patients received allografts from sibling donors, and 6 patients received allografts from unrelated donors (all patients died of GvHD).

aGvHD6 (19)4 (25)
cGvHD12 (37)8 (50)
Infection11 (35)3 (19)
MOF1 (3)0 (0)
Other2 (6)1 (6)
Total32a16b

Table 3 provides the adjusted hazard ratios for the FBA2 versus FBA1 regimens for each outcome of interest, confirming that the ATG dose was an independent predictor of the occurrence and severity of both aGvHD and cGvHD, but it did not have any significant impact on OS, NRM, or relapse/progression.

Table 3. Multivariate Hazard Ratios for Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Relapse/Progression According to Treatment With 1 Day or 2 Days of Combined Fludarabine, Busulfan, and Antithymocyte Globulina
OutcomeHR (95% CI)P
  • Abbreviations: aGvHD, acute graft-versus-host disease; cGvHD, chronic graft-versus-host disease; CI, confidence interval; FBA1, fludarabine-busulfan-antithymocyte globulin 1-day group; FBA2, fludarabine-busulfan-antithymocyte globulin 2-day group; HR, hazard ratio.

  • a

    Other variables that were associated significantly with outcome were donor/patient sex matching (grade 2-4 acute GvHD), donor type (grade 2-4 acute GvHD), and disease risk (relapse/progression).

  • b

    These were significant P values.

cGvHD  
 FBA11.00 
 FBA20.20 (0.11-0.36)<.0001b
Extensive cGvHD  
 FBA11.00 
 FBA20.20 (0.11-0.37)<.0001b
Grade 2-4 aGvHD  
 FBA11.00 
 FBA20.39 (0.19-0.79).009b
Grade 3-4 aGvHD  
 FBA11.00 
 FBA20.44 (0.20-0.89).03b
Relapse/progression  
 FBA11.00 
 FBA21.59 (0.83-3.07).16

DISCUSSION

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS
  6. DISCUSSION
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. FUNDING SOURCES
  9. REFERENCES

In this retrospective analysis of 2 sequential cohorts of patients who received treatment over a 10-year period at a single institution, we observed a significant reduction in the incidence of aGvHD and cGvHD without loss of disease control after the introduction of 1 more day of ATG in the conditioning regimen for RIC transplantation. We recently reported our previous experience with an ATG dose of 2.5 mg/kg15 in the context of RIC transplantation, in which patient outcomes still were impaired by the occurrence of long-lasting, extensive cGvHD; for this reason, we decided to modify the conditioning regimen by adding 1 more day of ATG in an attempt to lower the GvHD incidence. The results obtained from the current study confirmed our hypothesis, because the incidence of both aGvHD and cGvHD was significantly lower in the FBA2 cohort. This is particularly notable because the FBA2 cohort was both older and had a higher proportion of unrelated donors.

Our results are in line with those reported in other studies that aimed to identify the optimal ATG dose in fludarabine/busulfan-based conditioning regimens.4, 25-27 A series of 75 patients who received an “FBA” regimen using a total ATG dose of 6 mg/kg was reported by Hamadani et al,27 who observed a subsequent incidence of grade 2 through 4 aGvHD, grade 3 and 4 aGvHD, and cGvHD of 34%, 12%, and 48%, respectively. Mohty et al4 analyzed the incidence of GvHD among 101 patients who received different ATG doses (2.5-10 mg/kg) and reported that aGvHD was correlated significantly with ATG dose. A recent study25 reported incidences of grade 2 through 4 aGvHD, grade 3 and 4 aGvHD, and cGvHD of 23%, 10%, and 45%, respectively, among 207 patients who received a myeloablative conditioning regimen using fludarabine plus busulfan and a total ATG dose of 4.5 mg/kg. Recently, Bashir et al28 compared a total ATG dose of 4.5 mg/kg with a total dose of 7.5 mg/kg among 20 patients who underwent RIC-AlloSCT from unrelated donors after a fludarabine-melphalan conditioning regimen. The treatment-related mortality in that study was 20% in the 4.5 mg/kg arm and 60% in the 7.5 mg/kg arm, thus favoring the use of 4.5 mg/kg in patients undergoing RIC-AlloSCT from unrelated donors.

A large retrospective analysis recently questioned the beneficial impact of ATG,29 indicating inferior outcomes with T-cell depletion (anti-CD52 or ATG) compared with non–T-cell depleted grafts; our results appear to contradict this finding, but it is likely that differences in ATG dose and brand are responsible. In fact, in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) study,29 the median ATG dose was higher than ours (7 mg/kg), and 27% of patients in that study received horse ATG. Inferior disease-free survival in the ATG group was mainly because of the high relapse incidence (49% vs 23% in our study), which may be explained by the higher ATG dose used, although other factors, such as busulfan dose (≤8 mg/kg), use of other alkylating agents during conditioning, and pretransplantation therapies, also may be evoked.

Caution is needed when interpreting NRM and relapse results uniquely with regard to ATG dose changes; indeed, we cannot exclude the contribution of disease control and/or toxicity by the intravenous busulfan formulation, which was used mostly with the FBA2 regimen. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to analyze the ATG dose and busulfan formulation separately. It is reasonable to speculate that less variability in the pharmacokinetics associated with intravenous busulfan may allow better disease control and less organ toxicity, and this latter effect possibly may influence relapse/progression and NRM incidence; however, heterogeneity of diseases makes any further interpretation difficult, especially with respect to relapse or progression. A single-center, matched-pair analysis16 and, more recently, a long-term analysis of a prospective randomized trial30 and a retrospective registry-based analysis31 have confirmed that the addition of ATG does not increase the incidence of relapse and, thus, does not affect OS or progression-free survival.

In conclusion, our results demonstrate a reduced incidence of both acute and chronic GvHD with the FBA2 regimen compared with the FBA1 regimen, and this reduction was not accompanied by a significantly higher relapse incidence or by any significant differences in other transplantation outcomes. The current data indicate that 5 mg/kg of ATG provides satisfactory T-cell depletion in this type of RIC transplantation; the FBA2 regimen may be a platform for the development of strategies aimed at improving disease control, such as intensification of the busulfan dose in the conditioning regimen32 and/or the addition of post-transplantation therapeutics in high-risk patients.33-35

Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS
  6. DISCUSSION
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. FUNDING SOURCES
  9. REFERENCES

We thank all personnel working at the Hematology Department and Cellular Therapy Unit the Paoli-Calmettes Institute for their remarkable contribution to patient care and the assistance provided to the patients' families.

FUNDING SOURCES

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS
  6. DISCUSSION
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. FUNDING SOURCES
  9. REFERENCES

No specific funding was disclosed.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST DISCLOSURES

Dr. Blaise has contributed to educational events sponsored by Genzyme.

REFERENCES

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS
  6. DISCUSSION
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. FUNDING SOURCES
  9. REFERENCES
  • 1
    Slavin S, Nagler A, Naparstek E, et al. Nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation and cell therapy as an alternative to conventional bone marrow transplantation with lethal cytoreduction for the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Blood. 1998; 91: 756-763.
  • 2
    Sureda A, Robinson S, Canals C, et al. Reduced-intensity conditioning compared with conventional allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma: an analysis from the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 455-462.
  • 3
    Georges GE, Storb R. Review of “minitransplantation”: nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Int J Hematol. 2003; 77: 3-14.
  • 4
    Mohty M, Bay JO, Faucher C, et al. Graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic transplantation from HLA-identical sibling with antithymocyte globulin-based reduced-intensity preparative regimen. Blood. 2003; 102: 470-476.
  • 5
    Malard F, Cahu X, Clavert A, et al. Fludarabine, antithymocyte globulin, and very low-dose busulfan for reduced-intensity conditioning before allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with lymphoid malignancies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011; 17: 1698-1703.
  • 6
    Schetelig J, Thiede C, Bornhauser M, et al. Cooperative German Transplant Study Group. Evidence of a graft-versus-leukemia effect in chronic lymphocytic leukemia after reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation: the Cooperative German Transplant Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 2747-2753.
  • 7
    Finke J, Bethge WA, Schmoor C, et al. ATG-Fresenius Trial Group. Standard graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with or without anti-T-cell globulin in haematopoietic cell transplantation from matched unrelated donors: a randomised, open-label, multicentre phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009; 10: 855-864.
  • 8
    Bacigalupo A, Lamparelli T, Barisione G, et al. Gruppo Italiano Trapianti Midollo Osseo (GITMO). Thymoglobulin prevents chronic graft-versus-host disease, chronic lung dysfunction, and late transplant-related mortality: long-term follow-up of a randomized trial in patients undergoing unrelated donor transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006; 12: 560-565.
  • 9
    Bacigalupo A, Lamparelli T, Bruzzi P, et al. Antithymocyte globulin for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in transplants from unrelated donors: 2 randomized studies from Gruppo Italiano Trapianti Midollo Osseo (GITMO). Blood. 2001; 98: 2942-2947.
  • 10
    Maraninchi D, Gluckman E, Blaise D, et al. Impact of T-cell depletion on outcome of allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation for standard-risk leukaemias. Lancet. 1987; 25: 175-178.
  • 11
    Goldman JM, Gale RP, Horowitz MM, et al. Bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase. Increased risk for relapse associated with T-cell depletion. Ann Intern Med. 1988; 108: 806-814.
  • 12
    Apperley JF, Jones L, Hale G, et al. Bone marrow transplantation for patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia: T-cell depletion with campath-1 reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease but may increase the risk of leukaemic relapse. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1986; 1: 53-66.
  • 13
    Bacigalupo A. Antithymocyte globulin for prevention of graft-versus-host disease. Curr Opin Hematol. 2005; 12: 457-462.
  • 14
    Mohty M. Mechanisms of action of antithymocyte globulin: T-cell depletion and beyond. Leukemia. 2007; 21: 1387-1394.
  • 15
    Blaise D, Farnault L, C Faucher C, et al. Reduced intensity conditioning with fludarabine, oral busulfan and thymoglobulin allows long term disease control and low transplant related mortality in patients with haematological malignancies. Exp Hematol. 2010; 38: 1241-1250.
  • 16
    Duggan P, Booth K, Chaudhry A, et al. Alberta Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Program. Unrelated donor BMT recipients given pretransplant low-dose antithymocyte globulin have outcomes equivalent to matched sibling BMT: a matched pair analysis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002; 30: 681-686.
  • 17
    Russell JA, Irish W, Balogh A, et al. The addition of 400 cGY total body irradiation to a regimen incorporating once-daily intravenous busulfan, fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin reduces relapse without affecting nonrelapse mortality in acute myelogenous leukemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010; 16: 509-514.
  • 18
    Kahl C, Storer BE, Sandmaier BM, et al. Relapse risk in patients with malignant diseases given allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative conditioning. Blood. 2007; 110: 2744-2748.
  • 19
    Kaplan EL, Meier P. Non-parametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc. 1958; 53: 457-481.
  • 20
    Cox D. Regression models and life tables. J R Stat Soc (B). 1972; 34: 187-220.
  • 21
    Gooley TA, Leisenring W, Crowley J, Storer BE. Estimation of failure probabilities in the presence of competing risks: new representations of old estimators. Stat Med. 1999; 18: 695-706.
  • 22
    Fine JP, Gray RJ. A proportional hazards model for the subdistribution of a competing risk. J Am Stat Assoc. 1999; 94: 496-509.
  • 23
    Glucksberg H, Storb R, Fefer A, et al. Clinical manifestations of graft-versus-host disease in human recipients from HL-A-matched sibling donors. Transplantation. 1974; 18: 295-304.
  • 24
    Shulman HM, Sullivan KM, Weiden PL, et al. Chronic graft-versus-host syndrome in man. A long-term clinicopathologic study of 20 Seattle patients. Am J Med. 1980; 69: 204-217.
  • 25
    El Kourashy S, Williamson T, Chaudhry MA, et al. Influence of comorbidities on transplant outcomes in patients aged 50 years or more after myeloablative conditioning incorporating fludarabine, BU and ATG. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011; 46: 1077-1083.
  • 26
    Hamadani M, Blum W, Phillips G, et al. Improved nonrelapse mortality and infection rate with lower dose of antithymocyte globulin in patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2009; 15: 1422-1430.
  • 27
    Hamadani M, Craig M, Phillips GS, et al. Higher busulfan dose intensity does not improve outcomes of patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation following fludarabine, busulfan-based reduced toxicity conditioning. Hematol Oncol. 2011; 29: 202-210.
  • 28
    Bashir Q, Munsell M, Giralt S, et al. Randomized phase II trial comparing 2 dose levels of thymoglobulin in patients undergoing donor hematopoietic cell transplant. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012; 53: 915-919.
  • 29
    Soiffier R, LeRademacher J, Ho V, et al. Impact of immune modulation with anti-T-cell antibodies on the outcome of reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies. Blood. 2011; 117: 6963-6970.
  • 30
    Socie G, Schmoor C, Bethge WA, et al. ATG-Fresenius Trial Group. Chronic graft-versus-host disease: long-term results from a randomized trial on graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with or without anti-T-cell globulin ATG-Fresenius. Blood. 2011; 117: 6375-6382.
  • 31
    Mohty M, Labopin M, Balere ML, et al. Antithymocyte globulins and chronic graft-vs-host disease after myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-matched unrelated donors: a report from the Societe Francaise de Greffe de Moelle et de Therapie Cellulaire. Leukemia. 2010; 24: 1867-1874.
  • 32
    Andersson BS, de Lima M, Thall PF, Madden T, Russell JA, Champlin RE. Reduced-toxicity conditioning therapy with allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Curr Opin Oncol. 2009; 21(1 suppl): S11-S15.
  • 33
    de Lima M, Giralt S, Thall PF, et al. Maintenance therapy with low-dose azacitidine after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for recurrent acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome: a dose and schedule finding study. Cancer. 2010; 116: 5420-5431.
  • 34
    Kroger N, Zabelina T, Klyuchnikov E, et al. Toxicity-reduced, myeloablative allograft followed by lenalidomide maintenance as salvage therapy for refractory/relapsed myeloma patients [published online ahead of print August 6, 2012]. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2012.
  • 35
    El-Cheikh J, Crocchiolo R, Furst S, et al. Lenalidomide plus donor-lymphocytes infusion after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning in patients with high-risk multiple myeloma. Exp Hematol. 2012; 40: 521-527.