• 1
    Larson RA, Dodge RK, Burns CP, et al. A 5-drug remission induction regimen with intensive consolidation for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 8811. Blood. 1995; 85: 2025-2037.
  • 2
    Kantarjian H, Thomas D, O'Brien S, et al. Long-term follow-up results of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (Hyper-CVAD), a dose-intensive regimen, in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer. 2004; 101: 2788-2801.
  • 3
    Goldstone AH, Richards SM, Lazarus HM, et al. In adults with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the greatest benefit is achieved from a matched sibling allogeneic transplantation in first complete remission, and an autologous transplantation is less effective than conventional consolidation/maintenance chemotherapy in all patients: final results of the International ALL Trial (MRC UKALL XII/ECOG E2993). Blood. 2008; 111: 1827-1833.
  • 4
    Linker C, Damon L, Ries C, Navarro W. Intensified and shortened cyclical chemotherapy for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 2464-2471.
  • 5
    Bassan R, Hoelzer D. Modern therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29: 532-543.
  • 6
    Petersdorf SH, Kopecky KJ, Head DR, et al. Comparison of the L10M consolidation regimen to an alternative regimen including escalating methotrexate/L-asparaginase for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. Leukemia. 2001; 15: 208-216.
  • 7
    Raff T, Gokbuget N, Luschen S, et al. Molecular relapse in adult standard-risk ALL patients detected by prospective MRD monitoring during and after maintenance treatment: data from the GMALL 06/99 and 07/03 trials. Blood. 2007; 109: 910-915.
  • 8
    Labar B, Suciu S, Zittoun R, et al. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma for patients ≤50 years old in first complete remission: results of the EORTC ALL-3 trial. Haematologica. 2004; 89: 809-817.
  • 9
    Gaynor J, Chapman D, Little C, et al. A cause-specific hazard rate analysis of prognostic factors among 199 adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the Memorial Hospital experience since 1969. J Clin Oncol. 1988; 6: 1014-1030.
  • 10
    Hoelzer D, Thiel E, Loffler H, et al. Prognostic factors in a multicenter study for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults. Blood. 1988; 71: 123-131.
  • 11
    Weiss M, Maslak P, Feldman E, et al. Cytarabine with high-dose mitoxantrone induces rapid complete remissions in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia without the use of vincristine or prednisone. J Clin Oncol. 1996; 14: 2480-2485.
  • 12
    Giona F, Testi AM, Amadori S, et al. Idarubicin and high-dose cytarabine in the treatment of refractory and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ann Oncol. 1990; 1: 51-55.
  • 13
    Kantarjian HM, Walters RL, Keating MJ, et al. Mitoxantrone and high-dose cytosine arabinoside for the treatment of refractory acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer. 1990; 65: 5-8.
  • 14
    Grant S, Arlin Z, Gewirtz D, Feldman E. Effect of pharmacologically relevant concentrations of mitoxantrone on the in vitro growth of leukemic blast progenitors. Leukemia. 1991; 5: 336-339.
  • 15
    Feldman EJ, Alberts DS, Arlin Z, et al. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of high-dose mitoxantrone in combination with cytarabine in patients with acute leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 1993; 11: 2002-2009.
  • 16
    Damon LE, Rugo HS, Ries CA, Linker CA. Post-remission cytopenias following intense induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 1994; 8: 535-541.
  • 17
    Clarkson BD, Fried J. Changing concepts of treatment in acute leukemia. Med Clin North Am. 1971; 55: 561-600.
  • 18
    Willemze R, Peters WG, Colly LP. Short-term intensive treatment (V.A.A.P.) of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Eur J Haematol. 1988; 41: 489-495.
  • 19
    Weiss M, Telford P, Kempin S, et al. Severe toxicity limits intensification of induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 1993; 7: 832-837.
  • 20
    Dekker AW, van' Veer MB, Sizoo W, et al. Intensive postremission chemotherapy without maintenance therapy in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Dutch Hemato-Oncology Research Group. J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15: 476-482.
  • 21
    Hussein KK, Dahlberg S, Head D, et al. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults with intensive induction, consolidation, and maintenance chemotherapy. Blood. 1989; 73: 57-63.
  • 22
    Ellison RR, Mick R, Cuttner J, et al. The effects of postinduction intensification treatment with cytarabine and daunorubicin in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia: a prospective randomized clinical trial by Cancer and Leukemia Group B. J Clin Oncol. 1991; 9: 2002-2015.
  • 23
    Takeuchi J, Kyo T, Naito K, et al. Induction therapy by frequent administration of doxorubicin with 4 other drugs, followed by intensive consolidation and maintenance therapy for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the JALSG-ALL93 study. Leukemia. 2002; 16: 1259-1266.
  • 24
    Hunault M, Harousseau JL, Delain M, et al. Better outcome of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia after early genoidentical allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) than after late high-dose therapy and autologous BMT: a GOELAMS trial. Blood. 2004; 104: 3028-3037.
  • 25
    Ribera JM, Oriol A, Bethencourt C, et al. Comparison of intensive chemotherapy, allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation as postremission treatment for adult patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Results of the PETHEMA ALL-93 trial. Haematologica. 2005; 90: 1346-1356.
  • 26
    Cornelissen JJ, van der Holt B, Verhoef GE, et al. Myeloablative allogeneic versus autologous stem cell transplantation in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission: a prospective sibling donor versus no-donor comparison. Blood. 2009; 113: 1375-1382.
  • 27
    Ohno R. Current progress in the treatment of adult acute leukemia in Japan. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1993; 23: 85-97.
  • 28
    Tallman MS (Personal Communication).
  • 29
    Topp MS, Kufer P, Gokbuget N, et al. Targeted therapy with the T-cell-engaging antibody blinatumomab of chemotherapy-refractory minimal residual disease in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients results in high response rate and prolonged leukemia-free survival. J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29: 2493-2498.