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An empirical model of therapeutic effectiveness
Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013
Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society
Volume 119, Issue 9, pages 1706–1713, 1 May 2013
How to Cite
Chochinov, H. M., McClement, S. E., Hack, T. F., McKeen, N. A., Rach, A. M., Gagnon, P., Sinclair, S. and Taylor-Brown, J. (2013), Health care provider communication . Cancer, 119: 1706–1713. doi: 10.1002/cncr.27949
See editorial on pages 1609–10, this issue.
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- Issue published online: 22 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 22 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 2 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Received: 7 AUG 2012
- Unknown funding agency
Patients who are facing life-threatening and life-limiting cancer almost invariably experience psychological distress. Responding effectively requires therapeutic sensitivity and skill. In this study, we examined therapeutic effectiveness within the setting of cancer-related distress with the objective of understanding its constituent parts.
Seventy-eight experienced psychosocial oncology clinicians from 24 health care centers across Canada were invited to participate in 3 focus groups each. In total, 29 focus groups were held over 2 years, during which clinicians articulated the therapeutic factors deemed most helpful in mitigating patient psychosocial distress. The content of each focus group was summarized into major themes and was reviewed with participants to confirm their accuracy. Upon completion of the focus groups, workshops were held in various centers, eliciting participant feedback on an empirical model of therapeutic effectiveness based on the qualitative analysis of focus group data.
Three primary, interrelated therapeutic domains emerged from the data, forming a model of optimal therapeutic effectiveness: 1) personal growth and self-care (domain A), 2) therapeutic approaches (domain B), and 3) creation of a safe space (domain C). Areas of domain overlap were identified and labeled accordingly: domain AB, therapeutic humility; domain BC, therapeutic pacing; and domain AC, therapeutic presence.
This empirical model provides detailed insights regarding the elements and pedagogy of effective communication and psychosocial care for patients who are experiencing cancer-related distress. [See editorial on pages 000–000, this issue.] Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.