• 1
    Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. eds.SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Lung and Bronchus.Bethesda, MD:National Cancer Institute;2010. Available at: [Accessed March 14, 2013.]
  • 2
    Herbst RS, Heymach JV, Lippman SM.Lung cancer.N Engl J Med.2008;359:13671380.
  • 3
    Kris MG, Johnson BE, Kwiatkowski DJ, et al.Identification of driver mutations in tumor specimens from 1,000 patients with lung adenocarcinoma: the NCI's Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium (LCMC) [abstract].J Clin Oncol.2011;29( suppl). Abstract CRA7506.
  • 4
    Mascaux C, Iannino N, Martin B, et al.The role of RAS oncogene in survival of patients with lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis.Br J Cancer.2005;92:131139.
  • 5
    Tsao MS, Aviel-Ronen S, Ding K, et al.Prognostic and predictive importance of p53 and RAS for adjuvant chemotherapy in non small-cell lung cancer.J Clin Oncol.2007;25:52405247.
  • 6
    Camps C, Jantus-Lewintre E, Cabrera A, et al.The identification of KRAS mutations at codon 12 in plasma DNA is not a prognostic factor in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients.Lung Cancer.2011;72:365369.
  • 7
    Kalikaki A, Koutsopoulos A, Hatzidaki D, et al.Clinical outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving front-line chemotherapy according to EGFR and K-RAS mutation status.Lung Cancer.2010;69:110115.
  • 8
    Tejpar S, Celik I, Schlichting M, Sartorius U, Bokemeyer C, Van Cutsem E.Association of KRAS G13D tumor mutations with outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with or without cetuximab.J Clin Oncol.2012;30:35703577.
  • 9
    Ding L, Getz G, Wheeler DA, et al.Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma.Nature.2008;455:10691075.
  • 10
    Weir BA, Woo MS, Getz G, et al.Characterizing the cancer genome in lung adenocarcinoma.Nature.2007;450:893898.
  • 11
    Modrek B, Ge L, Pandita A, et al.Oncogenic activating mutations are associated with local copy gain.Mol Cancer Res.2009;7:12441252.
  • 12
    Soh J, Okumura N, Lockwood WW, et al.Oncogene mutations, copy number gains and mutant allele specific imbalance (MASI) frequently occur together in tumor cells [serial online].PLoS One.2009;4:e7464.
  • 13
    Engel E.A new genetic concept: uniparental disomy and its potential effect, isodisomy.Am J Med Genet.1980;6:137143.
  • 14
    Sasaki H, Hikosaka Y, Kawano O, Moriyama S, Yano M, Fujii Y.Evaluation of Kras gene mutation and copy number gain in non-small cell lung cancer.J Thorac Oncol.2011;6:1520.
  • 15
    Hartman DJ, Davison JM, Foxwell TJ, Nikiforova MN, Chiosea SI.Mutant allele-specific imbalance modulates prognostic impact of KRAS mutations in colorectal adenocarcinoma and is associated with worse overall survival.Int J Cancer.2012;131:18101817.
  • 16
    Chiosea S, Shuai Y, Cieply K, Nikiforova MN, Dacic S.EGFR fluorescence in situ hybridization-positive lung adenocarcinoma: incidence of coexisting KRAS and BRAF mutations.Hum Pathol.2010;41:10531060.
  • 17
    Guerrero S, Casanova I, Farre L, Mazo A, Capella G, Mangues R.K-ras codon 12 mutation induces higher level of resistance to apoptosis and predisposition to anchorage-independent growth than codon 13 mutation or proto-oncogene overexpression.Cancer Res.2000;60:67506756.
  • 18
    Tsao MS, Hainaut P, Bourredjem A, et al.LACE-Bio pooled analysis of the prognostic and predictive value of KRAS mutation in completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [abstract].Ann Oncol.2010;21( suppl). Abstract 4218.
  • 19
    Shepherd FA, Bourredjem A, Brambilla E, et al.Prognostic and predictive effects of KRAS mutation subtype in completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a LACE-Bio study [abstract].J Clin Oncol.2012;30( suppl). Abstract 7007.
  • 20
    Ihle NT, Byers LA, Kim ES, et al.Effect of KRAS oncogene substitutions on protein behavior: implications for signaling and clinical outcome.J Natl Cancer Inst.2012;104:228239.
  • 21
    Chiosea SI, Sherer CK, Jelic T, Dacic S.KRAS mutant allele-specific imbalance in lung adenocarcinoma.Mod Pathol.2011;24:15711577.
  • 22
    Oakley GJ 3rd, Chiosea SI.Higher dosage of the epidermal growth factor receptor mutant allele in lung adenocarcinoma correlates with younger age, stage IV at presentation, and poorer survival.J Thorac Oncol.2011;6:14071412.