• 1
    Andriole G, Crawford ED, Grubb R, et al. Mortality results from a randomized prostate-cancer screening trial. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:13101319.
  • 2
    Barocas DA, Grubb R III, Black A, et al. Association between race and follow-up diagnostic care after a positive prostate cancer screening test in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer. 2013;119:22232229.
  • 3
    Pinsky PF, Andriole GL, Kramer BS, Hayes RB, Prorok PC, Gohagan JK. Prostate biopsy following a positive screen in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial. J Urol. 2005;173:746750.
  • 4
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2012. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2012.
  • 5
    Richardson JT, Webster JD, Fields NJ. Uncovering myths and transforming realities among low-SES African-American men: implications for reducing prostate cancer disparities. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004;96:12951302.
  • 6
    Wagner SE, Drake BF, Elder K, Hebert JR. Social and clinical predictors of prostate cancer treatment decisions among men in South Carolina. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22:15971606.
  • 7
    Prorok PC, Andriole GL, Bresalier RS, et al; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Project Team. Design of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial. Control Clin Trials. 2000;21(6 suppl):273S309S.
  • 8
    Gaskin DJ, Arbelaez JJ, Brown JR, Petras H, Wagner FA, Cooper LA. Examining racial and ethnic disparities in site of usual source of care. J Natl Med Assoc. 2007;99:2230.
  • 9
    Reschovsky JD, O'Malley AS. Do primary care physicians treating minority patients report problems delivering high-quality care? Health Aff (Millwood). 2008;27:w222w231.
  • 10
    Bach PB, Pham HH, Schraq D, Tate RC, Hargraves JL. Primary care physicians who treat blacks and whites. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:575584.
  • 11
    McFall SL, Smith DW. Lack of follow-up of prostate-specific antigen test results. Public Health Rep. 2009;124:718725.
  • 12
    Ward E, Halpern M, Schrag N, et al. Association of insurance with cancer care utilization and outcomes. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008;58:931.
  • 13
    Fedewa SA, Etzioni R, Flanders WD, Jemal A, Ward EM. Association of insurance and race ethnicity with disease severity among men diagnosed with prostate cancer, National Cancer Database 2004-2006. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:24372444.
  • 14
    Moyer VA; US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for prostate dancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:120134.
  • 15
    Lacy SS. AUA disputes panel's recommendations on prostate cancer screening. May 21, 2012. Available at: Accessed January 21, 2013.
  • 16
    Lee CT, Bright CM. Statement on prostate-specific antigen (PSA). National Medical Association's Urology Section's experts speak to the recent changes in the recommendations for prostate cancer screening. Available at: Accessed January 20, 2013.
  • 17
    Sagan C. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Chapter 12, “The Fine Art of Baloney Detection.” New York: Random House; 1996.
  • 18
    Odedina FT, Akinremi TO, Chinegwundoh F, et al. Prostate cancer disparities in black men of African descent: a comparative literature review of prostate cancer burden among black men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa. Infect Agent Cancer. 2009;10:4(suppl 1):S1S2.
  • 19
    Ben Shlomo Y, Evans S, Ibrahim F, et al. The risk of prostate cancer amongst black men in the United Kingdom: the PROCESS cohort study. Eur Urol. 2008;53:99105.
  • 20
    Wolf AM, Wender RC, Etzioni RB, et al. American Cancer Society Prostate Cancer Advisory Committee. American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of prostate cancer: update 2010. CA Cancer J Clin. 2010;60:7098.
  • 21
    Screening for prostate cancer. American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:480484.