• 1
    Kotsopoulos J, Narod SA. Androgens and breast cancer. Steroids. 2012;77:1-9.
  • 2
    Hickey TE, Robinson JL, Carroll JS, Tilley WD. Minireview: The androgen receptor in breast tissues: growth inhibitor, tumor suppressor, oncogene? Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1252-1267.
  • 3
    Doane AS, Danso M, Lal P, et al. An estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer subset characterized by a hormonally regulated transcriptional program and response to androgen. Oncogene. 2006;25:3994-4008.
  • 4
    Ni M, Chen Y, Lim E, et al. Targeting androgen receptor in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. Cancer Cell. 2011;20:119-131.
  • 5
    Peters AA, Buchanan G, Ricciardelli C, et al. Androgen receptor inhibits estrogen receptor-alpha activity and is prognostic in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2009;69:6131-6140.
  • 6
    Agoff SN, Swanson PE, Linden H, Hawes SE, Lawton TJ. Androgen receptor expression in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. Immunohistochemical, clinical, and prognostic associations. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;120:725-731.
  • 7
    Kuenen-Boumeester V, Van der Kwast TH, Claassen CC, et al. The clinical significance of androgen receptors in breast cancer and their relation to histological and cell biological parameters. Eur J Cancer. 1996;32A:1560-1565.
  • 8
    de Launoit Y, Dauvois S, Dufour M, Simard J, Labrie F. Inhibition of cell cycle kinetics and proliferation by the androgen 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and antiestrogen N,n-butyl-N-methyl-11-[16′ alpha-chloro-3′,17 beta-dihydroxy-estra-1′,3′,5′-(10′)triene-7′ alpha-yl] undecanamide in human breast cancer ZR-75-1 cells. Cancer Res. 1991;51:2797-2802.
  • 9
    Hardin C, Pommier R, Calhoun K, Muller P, Jackson T, Pommier S. A new hormonal therapy for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. World J Surg. 2007;31:1041-1046.
  • 10
    Liu YN, Liu Y, Lee HJ, Hsu YH, Chen JH. Activated androgen receptor downregulates E-cadherin gene expression and promotes tumor metastasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7096-7108.
  • 11
    Peters KM, Edwards SL, Nair SS, et al. Androgen receptor expression predicts breast cancer survival: the role of genetic and epigenetic events. BMC Cancer 2012;12:132.
  • 12
    Ward RD, Weigel NL. Steroid receptor phosphorylation: Assigning function to site-specific phosphorylation. Biofactors. 2009;35:528-536.
  • 13
    Gioeli D, Ficarro SB, Kwiek JJ, et al. Androgen receptor phosphorylation. Regulation and identification of the phosphorylation sites. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29304-29314.
  • 14
    Black BE, Vitto MJ, Gioeli D, et al. Transient, ligand-dependent arrest of the androgen receptor in subnuclear foci alters phosphorylation and coactivator interactions. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:834-850.
  • 15
    Gioeli D, Black BE, Gordon V, et al. Stress kinase signaling regulates androgen receptor phosphorylation, transcription, and localization. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:503-515.
  • 16
    Taneja SS, Ha S, Swenson NK, et al. Cell-specific regulation of androgen receptor phosphorylation in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40916-40924.
  • 17
    Wen Y, Hu MC, Makino K, et al. HER-2/neu promotes androgen-independent survival and growth of prostate cancer cells through the Akt pathway. Cancer Res. 2000;60:6841-6845.
  • 18
    Lin HK, Yeh S, Kang HY, Chang C. Akt suppresses androgen-induced apoptosis by phosphorylating and inhibiting androgen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7200-7205.
  • 19
    Ha S, Iqbal NJ, Mita P, et al. Phosphorylation of the androgen receptor by PIM1 in hormone refractory prostate cancer. Oncogene. 2012 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 20
    Malinen M, Jääskeläinen T, Pelkonen M, et al. Proto-oncogene PIM-1 is a novel estrogen receptor target associating with high grade breast tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;365:270-276.
  • 21
    Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al. AJCC Cancer Staging Handbook. 7th ed. New York: Speringer-Verlag; 2010.
  • 22
    Kirkegaard T, Edwards J, Tovey S, et al. Observer variation in immunohistochemical analysis of protein expression, time for a change? Histopathology. 2006;48:787-794.
  • 23
    Cauley JA, Lucas FL, Kuller LH, Stone K, Browner W, Cummings SR. Elevated serum estradiol and testosterone concentrations are associated with a high risk for breast cancer. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:270-277.
  • 24
    Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Manson JE, et al. Plasma sex steroid hormone levels and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:1292-1299.
  • 25
    Isola JJ. Immunohistochemical demonstration of androgen receptor in breast cancer and its relationship to other prognostic factors. J Pathol. 1993;170:31-35.
  • 26
    Secreto G, Venturelli E, Meneghini E, et al. Androgen receptors and serum testosterone levels identify different subsets of postmenopausal breast cancers. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:599.
  • 27
    Park S, Koo J, Park HS, et al. Expression of androgen receptors in primary breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2010;21:488-492.
  • 28
    Jayasinghe UW, Bilous AM, Boyages J. Is survival from infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast different from that of infiltrating ductal carcinoma? Breast J. 2007;13:479-485.
  • 29
    Bharat A, Gao F, Margenthaler JA. Tumor characteristics and patient outcomes are similar between invasive lobular and mixed invasive ductal/lobular breast cancers but differ from pure invasive ductal breast cancers. Am J Surg. 2009;198:516-519.
  • 30
    De Amicis F, Thirugnansampanthan J, Cui Y, et al. Androgen receptor overexpression induces tamoxifen resistance in human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;121:1-11.
  • 31
    Garay JP, Park BH. Androgen receptor as a targeted therapy for breast cancer. Am J Cancer Res. 2012;2:434-445.