• 1
    Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:10-29.
  • 2
    Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al, eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations), National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD,, based on November 2011 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2012.
  • 3
    US Census Bureau. Current Population Survey. Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2003–2009. Accessed at Access date: November 26, 2012.
  • 4
    Toner CD, Davis CD, Milner JA. The vitamin D and cancer conundrum: aiming at a moving target. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:1492-1500.
  • 5
    Davis CD. Vitamin D and cancer: current dilemmas and future research needs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(2):565S-569S.
  • 6
    Moan J, Porojnicu AC, Dahlback A, Setlow RB. Addressing the health benefits and risks, involving vitamin D or skin cancer, of increased sun exposure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105:668-673.
  • 7
    Freedman DM, Looker AC, Chang S, Graubard BI. Prospective study of serum vitamin D and cancer mortality in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:1594-1602.
  • 8
    Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, Recker RR, Heaney RP. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1586-1591.
  • 9
    Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED, et al. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:252-261.
  • 10
    Moreno J, Krishnan AV, Feldman D. Molecular mechanisms mediating the anti-proliferative effects of vitamin D in prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;97:31-36.
  • 11
    Moreno J, Krishnan AV, Peehl DM, Feldman D. Mechanisms of vitamin D-mediated growth inhibition in prostate cancer cells: inhibition of the prostaglandin pathway. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:2525-2530.
  • 12
    Bao BY, Yeh SD, Lee YF. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits prostate cancer cell invasion via modulation of selective proteases. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:32-42.
  • 13
    Bao BY, Yao J, Lee YF. 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses interleukin-8-mediated prostate cancer cell angiogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1883-1893.
  • 14
    Holick MF. Vitamin D: a millennium perspective. J Cell Biochem. 2003;88:296-307.
  • 15
    Jones G. Pharmacokinetics of vitamin D toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:582S-586S.
  • 16
    Robsahm TE, Tretli S, Dahlback A, Moan J. Vitamin D3 from sunlight may improve the prognosis of breast-, colon- and prostate cancer (Norway). Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15:149-158.
  • 17
    Lagunova Z, Porojnicu AC, Dahlback A, Berg JP, Beer TM, Moan J. Prostate cancer survival is dependent on season of diagnosis. Prostate. 2007;67:1362-1370.
  • 18
    Hanchette CL, Schwartz GG. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer. 1992;70:2861-2869.
  • 19
    Schwartz GG, Hanchette CL. UV, latitude, and spatial trends in prostate cancer mortality: all sunlight is not the same (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17:1091-1101.
  • 20
    Ahonen MH, Tenkanen L, Teppo L, Hakama M, Tuohimaa P. Prostate cancer risk and prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (Finland). Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11:847-852.
  • 21
    Tuohimaa P, Tenkanen L, Ahonen M, et al. Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case-control study in the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer. 2004;108:104-108.
  • 22
    Ahn J, Peters U, Albanes D, et al; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Project Team. Serum vitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:796-804.
  • 23
    Travis RC, Crowe FL, Allen NE, et al. Serum vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control analysis nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169:1223-1232.
  • 24
    Freedman DM, Looker AC, Abnet CC, Linet MS, Graubard BI. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cancer mortality in the NHANES III Study (1988-2006). Cancer Res. 2010;70:8587-8597.
  • 25
    Beer TM, Ryan CW, Venner PM, et al; ASCENT Investigators. Double-blinded randomized study of high-dose calcitriol plus docetaxel compared with placebo plus docetaxel in androgen-independent prostate cancer: a report from the ASCENT Investigators. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:669-674.
  • 26
    Marketwire. Novacea Announces Preliminary Findings From Data Analysis of Ascent-2 Phase 3 Trial. Accessed November 8, 2012.
  • 27
    Clemens TL, Adams JS, Henderson SL, Holick MF. Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of skin to synthesise vitamin D3. Lancet. 1982;1:74-76.
  • 28
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.
  • 29
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Erythemal UV Exposure. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer. Accessed August 12, 2010.
  • 30
    Boscoe FP, Schymura MJ. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993-2002. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:264.
  • 31
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: Incidence-SEER 18 Regs Research Data+Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov. 2011 Sub, Vintage 2009 Populations (2000-2009) Linked To County Attributes-Total US, 1969-2010 Counties. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch; 2012, based on the November 2011 submission.
  • 32
    Warren JL, Klabunde CN, Schrag D, Bach PB, Riley GF. Overview of the SEER-Medicare data: content, research applications, and generalizability to the United States elderly population. Med Care. 2002;40(suppl 8):IV-3- IV-18.
  • 33
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2010. Access date September 12, 2010.
  • 34
    Area Resource File: 2009-2010. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions; 2010.
  • 35
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1984–2009. Access date: May 1, 2012.
  • 36
    Environmental Protection Agency. Experimental UV Index. EPA 430-F-94-019. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency; 1994.
  • 37
    Herman JR, Celarier EA. Erythemal Exposure Data Product. NASA Goddard Space Center. Accessed August 12, 2010.
  • 38
    Terushkin V, Bender A, Psaty EL, Engelsen O, Wang SQ, Halpern AC. Estimated equivalency of vitamin D production from natural sun exposure versus oral vitamin D supplementation across seasons at two US latitudes. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62:929.e1-929.e9.
  • 39
    National Climatic Data Center. Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily Version 2.92. Accessed April 17, 2012.
  • 40
    Lund CC, Broder NC. Estimation of areas of burns. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1944;79:352-358.
  • 41
    Shui IM, Mucci LA, Kraft P, et al. Vitamin D-related genetic variation, plasma vitamin D, and risk of lethal prostate cancer: a prospective nested case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104:690-699.
  • 42
    McCullough ML, Weinstein SJ, Freedman DM, et al. Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172:21-35.
  • 43
    Nimptsch K, Platz EA, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. Association between plasma 25-OH vitamin D and testosterone levels in men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;77:106-112.