• 1
    US Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States Cancer Statistics: 1999–2007 Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Cancer Institute; 2011. Available at: Accessed June 10, 2013.
  • 2
    Edwards BK, Ward E, Kohler BA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2006, featuring colorectal cancer trends and impact of interventions (risk factors, screening, and treatment) to reduce future rates. Cancer. 2010;116:544573.
  • 3
    Rim SH, Seeff L, Ahmed F, King JB, Coughlin SS. Colorectal cancer incidence in the United States 1999–2004: an updated analysis of data from the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Cancer. 2009;115:19671976.
  • 4
    Mariotto AB, Yabroff KR, Shao Y, Feuer EJ, Brown ML. Projections of the cost of cancer care in the United States: 2010–2020. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:117128.
  • 5
    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Ho MN, et al. Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopic polypectomy. The National Polyp Study Workgroup. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:19771981.
  • 6
    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Screening for Colorectal Cancer: Recommendation Statement. AHRQ publication no. 08–05124-EF-3. Rockville, MD: AHRQ, US Department of Health and Human Services; 2008. Available at: Accessed June 30, 2010.
  • 7
    Mandel JS, Church TR, Bond JH, et al. The effect of fecal occult-blood screening on the incidence of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:16031607.
  • 8
    Mandel JS, Bond JH, Church TR, et al. Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for fecal occult blood. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:13651371.
  • 9
    Selby JV, Friedman GD, Quesenberry CP Jr, Weiss NS. A case-control study of screening sigmoidoscopy and mortality from colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:653657.
  • 10
    Newcomb PA, Norfleet RG, Storer BE, Surawicz TS, Marcus PM. Screening sigmoidoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84:15721575.
  • 11
    Hardcastle JD, Chamberlain JO, Robinson MH, et al. Randomised controlled trial of faecal-occult-blood screening for colorectal cancer. Lancet. 1996;348:14721477.
  • 12
    Kronborg O, Fenger C, Olsen J, Jorgensen OD, Sondergaard O. Randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal-occult-blood test. Lancet. 1996;348:14671471.
  • 13
    Atkin WS, Edwards R, Kralj-Hans I, et al. Once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in prevention of colorectal cancer: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375:16241633.
  • 14
    Johnson CD, Chen MH, Toledano AY, et al. Accuracy of CT colonography for detection of large adenomas and cancers, N Engl J Med. 2008;359:12071217.
  • 15
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital signs: colorectal cancer screening, incidence, and mortality—United States, 2002–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:884889.
  • 16
    Shapiro JA, Seeff LC, Thompson TD, Nadel MR, Klabunde CN, Vernon SW. Colorectal Cancer test use from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:16231630.
  • 17
    Rim SH, Joseph DA, Steele, CB, Thompson TD, Seeff LC; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Colorectal Cancer Screening—United States, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2011;60(suppl 15):4246.
  • 18
    Seeff LC, DeGroff A, Tangka F, et al. Development of a federally funded demonstration colorectal cancer screening program [serial online]. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5:A64.
  • 19
    DeGroff A, Holden D, Goode Green S, Boehm J, Seeff LC, Tangka F. Start-up of the colorectal cancer screening demonstration project [serial online]. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5A38.
  • 20
    DeGroff A, Boehm J, Green SG, Holden D, Seeff LC. Facilitators and challenges to start-up of the colorectal cancer screening demonstration program [serial online]. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5:A39.
  • 21
    Tangka FKL, Subramanian S, Bapat B, Seeff LC, et al. Cost of starting colorectal cancer screening programs: results from 5 federally funded demonstration programs [serial online]. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5:A47.
  • 22
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The National Breast and Cervical Early Detection Program. 1991–2002 National Report. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2005.
  • 23
    Subramanian S, Tangka FKL, Hoover S, et al. Costs of planning and implementing the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):28552862.
  • 24
    Villanueva, et al. Collaborating across multiple health care institutions in an urban colorectal cancer screening program. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):29052913.
  • 25
    Lane DS, Messina CR, Cavanagh MF, Anderson JC. Delivering colonoscopy screening for low-income populations in Suffolk County: strategies, outcomes, and benchmarks. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):28422848.
  • 26
    Cavanagh MF, Lane DS, Messina CR, Anderson JC. Clinical case management and navigation for colonoscopy screening in an academic medical center. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):28942904.
  • 27
    Phillips-Angeles E, Song L, Hannon PA, et al. Fostering partnerships and program success. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):28842893.
  • 28
    Boehm JE, Rohan EA, Preissle J, DeGroff A, Glover-Kudon R. Recruiting patients into the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program: strategies and challenges across 5 sites. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):29142925.
  • 29
    Castro G, Seeff L, Azrak F, et al. Outpatient colonoscopy complications in the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program: a prospective analysis. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):28492854.
  • 30
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for colorectal cancer: recommendation and rationale. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:129131.
  • 31
    Nadel, et al. Assessing screening quality in the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):28342841.
  • 32
    Glover-Kudon R, DeGroff A, Rohan EA, Preissle J, Boehm J. Developmental milestones across the programmatic life cycle: implementing the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):29262939.
  • 33
    Rohan EA, Boehm JE, DeGroff A, Glover-Kudon R, Preissle J. Implementing the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program: wisdom from the field. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):28702883.
  • 34
    Tangka FKL, Subramanian S, Beebe MC, Hoover S, Royalty J, Seeff LC. Clinical costs of colorectal cancer screening in 5 federally funded demonstration programs. Cancer. 2013;119(suppl 15):28632869.
  • 35
    Benson VS, Atkin WS, Green J, et al. International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network. Towards standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: the International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network, Int J Cancer. 2012;130:29612973.
  • 36
    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, Fletcher RH, et al. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer and the American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin. 2006;56:143159.
  • 37
    Rimer BK, Conaway M, Lyna P, Glassman B, Yarnall KS, Lipkus I, Barber LT. The impact of tailored interventions on a community health center population. Patient Educ Couns. 1999;37:125140.
  • 38
    Lieberman DA, Weiss DG, Bond JH, Ahnen DJ, Garewal H, Chejfec G. Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:162168; erratum in N Engl J Med. 2000; 34:1204.
  • 39
    Imperiale TF, Wagner DR, Lin CY, Larkin GN, Rogge JD, Ransohoff DF. Risk of advanced proximal neoplasms in asymptomatic adults according to the distal colorectal findings. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:169174.
  • 40
    Imperiale TF, Wagner DR, Lin CY, Larkin GN, Rogge JD, Ransohoff DF. Results of screening colonoscopy among persons 40 to 49 years of age. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:17811785.
  • 41
    Gupta S, Saunders BP, Fraser C, et al. The first 3 years of national bowel cancer screening at a single UK tertiary centre. Colorectal Dis. 2012;14:166173.
  • 42
    Lisi D, Hassan CC, Crespi M; AMOD Study Group. Participation in colorectal cancer screening with FOBT and colonoscopy: an Italian, multicentre, randomized population study. Dig Liver Dis. 2010;42:371376.
  • 43
    Hol L, van Leerdam ME, van Ballegooijen M, et al. Screening for colorectal cancer: randomised trial comparing guaiac-based and immunochemical faecal occult blood testing and flexible sigmoidoscopy. Gut. 2010;59:6268.
  • 44
    Lieberman D, Nadel M, Smith RA, et al. Standardized colonoscopy reporting and data system: report of the Quality Assurance Task Group of the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;65:757766.
  • 45
    Li J, Nadel MR, Poppell CF, Dwyer DM, Lieberman DA, Steinberger EK. Quality assessment of colonoscopy reporting: results from a statewide cancer screening program [serial online]. Diagn Ther Endosc 2010:419796, 2010.
  • 46
    Thompson L, Reeder T, Abel G. I can't get my husband to go and have a colonoscopy: gender and screening for colorectal cancer. Health (London). 2012;16:235249.
  • 47
    Kelly B, Hornik R, Romantan A, et al. Cancer information scanning and seeking in the general population. J Health Commun. 2010;15:734753.
  • 48
    Rutten LJ, Squiers L, Hesse B. Cancer-related information seeking: hints from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). J Health Commun. 2006;11(suppl 1):147156.
  • 49
    Griffith DM, Gunter K, Allen JO. Male gender role strain as a barrier to African American men's physical activity. Health Educ Behav. 2011;38:482491.
  • 50
    Cafferty FH, Wong JM, Yen AM, Duffy SW, Atkin WS, Chen TH. Findings at follow-up endoscopies in subjects with suspected colorectal abnormalities: effects of baseline findings and time to follow-up. Cancer J. 2007;13:263270.
  • 51
    Hol L, de Bekker-Grob EW, van Dam L, et al. Preferences for colorectal cancer screening strategies: a discrete choice experiment. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:972980.
  • 52
    Levin TR, Jamieson L, Burley DA, Reyes J, Oehrli M, Caldwell C. Organized colorectal cancer screening in integrated health care systems. Epidemiol Rev. 2011;33:101110.
  • 53
    Seeff LC, Manninen D, Dong F, et al. Is there endoscopic capacity to provide colorectal cancer screening to the unscreened population in the United States? Gastroenterology. 2004;127:16611669.
  • 54
    Seeff LC, Richards TB, Shapiro JA, et al. How many endoscopies are performed for colorectal cancer screening? Results from CDC's Survey of Endoscopic Capacity. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:16701677.
  • 55
    111th Congress of the United States. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Pubic Law No. 111–148.