• 1
    Swanson GM, Bailar JC, 3rd. Selection and description of cancer clinical trials participants—science or happenstance? Cancer. 2002;95:950-959.
  • 2
    Du Bois, WEB. The health and physique of the Negro American. Am J Public Health. 1906;93:272-276
  • 3
    Quinn SC, Thomas, SB. The National Negro Health Week, 1915-1951: a descriptive account. Wellness Perspectives. 1996;12:172-179.
  • 4
    Orsi JM, Margellos-Anast H, Whitman S. Black-White health disparities in the United States and Chicago: a 15-year progress analysis. Am J Public Health. 2010;100:349-356.
  • 5
    Thomas SB, Benjamin GC, Almarios D, Lathan, M. Historical and current policy efforts to elminate racial and ethnic health disparities in the United States: future opportunities for public health education. Health Promot Prat. 2006;7:324-330.
  • 6
    Beal A. Policies to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in child health and health care. Health Aff (Millwood). 2004;23:171-179
  • 7
    Thomson G, Mitchell F, Williams M. Examining the Health Disparities Research Plan of the National Institutes of Health: Unfinished Business. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2001.
  • 8
    National Institutes of Health. Annual performance plan and report. Available at: Accessed November 8, 2012.
  • 9
    National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities. NIH health disparities strategic plan. Available at: Accessed November 8, 2012.
  • 10
    Springfield S. Catalyzing transdisciplinary regional partnerships to eliminate cancer health disparities. Sharing in our vision: center to reduce cancer health disparities. Available at: Accessed August 20, 2012.
  • 11
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. Available at: Accessed September 16, 2012.
  • 12
    Henderson A, Robinson W, Finegold K. The Affordable Care Act and Latinos. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.
  • 13
    Cuellar A, Simmons A, Finegold K. The Affordable Care Act and Women. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.
  • 14
    National Institutes of Health. NIH policy and guidelines on the inclusion of women and minorities as subjects in clinical research. Available at: Accessed June 17, 2012.
  • 15
    Berger JS, Melloni C, Wang TY, et al. Reporting and representation of race/ethnicity in published randomized trials. Am Heart J. 2009;158:742-747.
  • 16
    Park IU, Taylor AL. Race and ethnicity in trials of antihypertensive therapy to prevent cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review. Ann Fam Med. 2007;5:444-452.
  • 17
    Hutchins LF, Unger JM, Crowley JJ, Coltman CA Jr, Albain KS. Underrepresentation of patients 65 years of age or older in cancer-treatment trials. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:2061-2067.
  • 18
    Murthy VH, Krumholz HM, Gross CP. Participation in cancer clinical trials: race-, sex-, and age-based disparities. JAMA. 2004;291:2720-2726.
  • 19
    Geller SE, Koch A, Pellettieri B, Carnes M. Inclusion, analysis, and reporting of sex and race/ethnicity in clinical trials: have we made progress? J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011;20:315-320.
  • 20
    Kim E, Carrigan TP, Menon V. Enrollment of women in National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded cardiovascular randomized controlled trials fails to meet current federal mandates for inclusion. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:672-673.
  • 21
    Blauwet LA, Hayes SN, McManus D, Redberg RF, Walsh MN. Low rate of sex-specific result resporting in cardiovascular trials. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:166-170.