• 1
    D'Amico AV, Whittington R, Malkowicz SB, et al. Biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, or interstitial radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA. 1998;280:969974.
  • 2
    D'Amico AV, Manola J, Loffredo M, et al. 6-Month androgen suppression plus radiation therapy vs radiation therapy alone for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292:821827.
  • 3
    Bolla M, de Reijke TM, Van Tienhoven G, et al. Duration of androgen suppression in the treatment of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:25162527.
  • 4
    Freedland SJ, Humphreys EB, Mangold LA, et al. Death in patients with recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: prostate-specific antigen doubling time subgroups and their associated contributions to all-cause mortality. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:17651771.
  • 5
    Shahinian VB, Kuo YF, Freeman JL, et al. Risk of fracture after androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:154164.
  • 6
    Braga-Basaria M, Dobs AS, Muller DC, et al. Metabolic syndrome in men with prostate cancer undergoing long-term androgen-deprivation therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:39793983.
  • 7
    D'Amico AV, Denham, JW, Crook J, et al. Influence of androgen suppression therapy for prostate cancer on frequency and timing of fatal myocardial infarction. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:24202425.
  • 8
    Keating NL, O'Malley AJ, Smith MR. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:44484456.
  • 9
    Wo JY, Chen MH, Nguyen PL, et al. Evaluating the combined effect of comorbidity and prostate-specific antigen kinetics on the risk of death in men after prostate-specific antigen recurrence. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:60006005.
  • 10
    Freedland SJ, Humphreys EB, Mangold LA, et al. Risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality following biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. JAMA. 2005;294:433439.
  • 11
    Zhou P, Chen MH, McLeod D, et al. Predictors of prostate cancer-specific mortality after radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:69926998.
  • 12
    Piccirillo JF, Tierney RM, Costas I, et al. Prognostic importance of comorbidity in a hospital-based cancer registry. JAMA. 2004;291:24412447.
  • 13
    Crook JM, O'Callaghan CJ, Duncan G, et al. Intermittent androgen suppression for rising PSA after radiotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:895903.
  • 14
    Beahrs OH, Henson DE, Hutter RVP, Kennedy BJ. American Joint Committee on Cancer: Manual for Staging of Cancer. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott; 1992.
  • 15
    Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis. 1987;40:373383.
  • 16
    Keyo RA, Cherkin DC, Ciol MA. Adapting a clinical comorbidity index for use with ICD-9-CM administrative databases. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45:613619.
  • 17
    Elixhauser A, Steiner C, Harris DR, Coffey RM. Comorbidity measures for use with administrative data. Med Care. 1998;36:827.
  • 18
    American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Panel. Consensus statement: guidelines for PSA following radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1997;37:10351041.
  • 19
    Agresti A. Inference for contingency tables. In: Categorical Data Analysis. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2002:70114.
  • 20
    Hollander M, Wolfe DA. Nonparametric Statistical Methods. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1999:106–140.
  • 21
    Kutner MH, Nachtshein CJ, Neter J, et al. Chapter 1: Linear regression with one predictor variable, in Applied Linear Regression Models (McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York, NY), edition 5, pp 239, 2005.
  • 22
    Kutner MH, Nachtsheim CJ, Neter J, et al. Chapter 17: Analysis of factor level means–Section 17.5 Bonferroni multiple comparison procedure. In: Applied Linear Regression Models. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin; 2005:756759.
  • 23
    Klein JP, Moeschberger ML. Chapter 9: Refinements of the semiparametric proportional hazards model. In: Survival Analysis: Technique for Censored and Truncated Data. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2003:295328.
  • 24
    D'Amico AV, Chen MH, Renshaw AA, Loffredo M, Kantoff PW. Androgen suppression and radiation vs radiation alone for prostate cancer: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008;299:289295.
  • 25
    Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc. 1958;53:457500.
  • 26
    de Bono JS, Logothetis CJ, Molina A, et al; COU-AA-301 Investigators. Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011;465:19952005.
  • 27
    Scher HI, Fizazi K, Saad F, et al; AFFIRM Investigators. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:11871197.
  • 28
    Pinsky PF, Miller A, Kramer BS, et al. Evidence of a healthy volunteer effect in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:874881.
  • 29
    Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Grubb RL 3rd, et al;PLCO Project Team. Prostate cancer screening in the randomized Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial: mortality results after 13 years of follow-up. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104:125132.
  • 30
    Schröder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, et al; ERSPC Investigators. Prostate-cancer mortality at 11 years of follow-up. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:981990.