Data on occupations and life styles of patients with cancer have been collected since 1983. To investigate cancer patterns and risks in farmers in Alberta, all farmers were abstracted and compared with nonfarmers in the data base, using case-control analysis. Controls were patients with cancer at any site except the index site. Significantly elevated odds ratio (OR), adjusted for age and smoking, were found among the farmers for cancers of the lip (OR = 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.14 to 4.84) and prostate (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.55). Crude risk for lung cancer was significantly lower in farmers, but statistical significance disappeared when risk was adjusted for smoking (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.02). Farmers were at considerably lower risk of malignant melanoma of the skin, compared with non-farmers (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.91).