SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Muir C, Waterhouse J, Mack T, Powell J, Whelan S. Cancer incidence in five continents, vol. 5. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1987.
  • 2
    National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics of the United States 1987. vol. 2. Mortality. Part A. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1990. DHHS publication no. (PHS) 90-1101.
  • 3
    Moolgavkar SH, Day NE, Stevens RG. Two-stage model for carcinogenesis: epidemiology of breast cancer in females. J Natl Cancer Inst 1980; 65: 55969.
  • 4
    Armstrong B, Doll R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices, Int J Cancer 1975; 15: 61731.
  • 5
    Miller BA, Feuer EJ, Hankey BF. The increasing incidence of breast cancer since 1982: relevance of early detection. Cancer Causes Control 1991; 2: 6774.
  • 6
    Boyle P, Maissoneuve P, Hsieh C. Epidemiology of breast cancer. In: Zatonski W, Boyle P, Tyczynski J. editors. Cancer prevention: vital statistics to prevention: Proceedings of the International Conference 12–14 October 1988, Warsaw, Poland. Warsaw: PA Interpress, 1990: 12835.
  • 7
    Prentice RL, Sheppard L. Dietary fat and cancer: consistency of the epidemiologic data and disease prevention that may follow from a practical reduction in fat consumption. Cancer Causes Control 1990; 1: 8197.
  • 8
    Blot WJ, Devesa SS, Fraumeni JF. Declining breast cancer mortality among young American women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987; 78: 4514.
  • 9
    Morris DL, Hulka BS. Increases in breast cancer incidence and mortality rates between 1975 and 1986 in white and black Americans: a screening effect or an alarming trend [abstract]? Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132: 790.
  • 10
    Shapiro S, Venet W, Strax P, Venet L, Roeser R. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the Health Insurance Plan Study: a randomized trial with breast cancer screening. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1985; 67: 6574.
  • 11
    Morrison AS, Brisson J, Khalid N. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project. J Natl Cancer Inst 1988; 80: 15407.
  • 12
    Reis LAG, Hankey BF, Edwards BK, editors. Cancer statistics review 1973–87. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute: Publication no. (NIH) 90–2789.
  • 13
    White E, Lee CY, Kristal AR. Evaluation of the increase in breast cancer incidence in relation to mammography use. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990; 82: 154652.
  • 14
    Lantz PM, Remmngton PL, Newcomb PA. Mammography screening and the increased incidence of breast cancer in Wisconsin. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 81: 15406.
  • 15
    Bain C, Speizer FE, Rosner B, Belanger C, Hennekens CH. Family history of breast cancer as a risk indicator for the disease. Am J Epidemiol 1980; 111: 3018.
  • 16
    Bain C, Willett W, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Belanger C, Hennekens CH. Early age at first birth and decreased risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1981; 114: 7059.
  • 17
    Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1987; 316: 228.
  • 18
    Ottman R, Pike MC, King M-C, Henderson BE. A practical guide for estimating risk for familial breast cancer. Lancet 1983; 2: 5568.
  • 19
    Pathak D, Speizer FE, Willett WC, Rosner B, Lipnick RJ. Parity and breast cancer risk: possible effect on age at diagnosis. Int J Cancer 1986; 37: 215.
  • 20
    Pike MC, Krailo MD, Henderson BE, Casagrande JT, Hoel DG. “Hormonal” risk factors, “breast tissue age” and the age-incidence of breast cancer. Nature 1983; 303: 76770.
  • 21
    Bruzzi P, Negri E, LaVecchia C, Decarli A, Palli D, Parazzini F, et al. Short term increase in risk of breast cancer after full term pregnancy. BMJ 1988; 297: 10968.
  • 22
    Janerich DT, Hoff MB. Evidence for a crossover in breast cancer risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1982; 116: 73742.
  • 23
    London SJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rosner B, Speizer FE. A prospective study of relative weight, height and the risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1989; 262: 28538.
  • 24
    Tretli S. Height and weight in relation to breast cancer morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of 570,000 women in Norway. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 2330.
  • 25
    Willett WC, Browne ML, Bain C, Lipnick RJ, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, et al. Relative weight and risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 73140.
  • 26
    Tretli S, Haldorson T, Ottestad L. The effects of premorbid height and weight on the survival of breast cancer patients. Br J Cancer 1990; 62: 299303.
  • 27
    Coates RJ, Clark WS, Eley JW, Greenberg RS, Huguley CM, Brown RL. Race, nutritional status, and survival from breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990; 82: 168492.
  • 28
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group. Effects of adjuvant tamoxifen and of cytotoxic therapy on mortality in early breast cancer: an overview of 61 randomized trials among 28,896 women. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 168192.
  • 29
    Key TJA, Pike MC. The role of estrogens and progestagens in the epidemiology of and prevention of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 1988; 34: 2943.
  • 30
    McPherson K, Vessey MP, Neil A, Doll R, Jones L, Roberts M. Early oral contraceptive use and breast cancer: results of another case-control study. Br J Cancer 1987; 56: 65360.
  • 31
    Romieu I, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, et al. A prospective study of oral contraceptive use and the risk of breast cancer in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81: 131321.
  • 32
    Romieu I, Berlin JA, Colditz GA. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer: review and meta-analysis. Cancer 1990; 66: 225363.
  • 33
    Steinberg KK, Thaker SB, Smith SJ, Stroup DF, Zack MM, Flanders WD, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of estrogen replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1991; 265: 198590.
  • 34
    Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, et al. Postmenopausal hormone use and risk of breast cancer: 12-year follow-up of the Nurses' Health Study. In: Mann RD, editor. Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. Camforth, UK: Parthenon, 1992: 6377.
  • 35
    Gambrell RD, Maier RC, Sanders BI. Decreased incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal estrogen-progesterone users. Obstet Gynecol 1983; 62: 43543.
  • 36
    Ames BN, Kammen HO, Yamasaki E. Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1975; 72: 24237.
  • 37
    Green A, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Bain C, Rosner B, et al. Use of permanent hair dyes and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987; 79: 2537.
  • 38
    MacMahon B, Trichopoulos D, Cole P, Brown J. Cigarette smoking and urinary estrogens. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 10625.
  • 39
    London SJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. A prospective study of smoking and the risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81: 162531.
  • 40
    London SJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rosner BA, Corsano K, et al. Lactation and risk of breast cancer among a cohort of US women. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 312: 1726.
  • 41
    Willett WC, Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Hennekens CH, et al. Dietary fat and breast cancer: an 8-year follow-up [abstract]. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 134: 715.
  • 42
    Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 166472.
  • 43
    Jones DY, Schatzkin A, Green SB, Block G, Brinton LA, Zeigler RG, et al. Dietary fat and breast cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1. Epidemiologic follow-up study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1987; 79: 46571.
  • 44
    Howe GR, Friedenreich CM, Jain M, Miller AB. A cohort study of fat intake and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 83: 33640.
  • 45
    Williams RR, Horm JW. Association of cancer rates with tobacco and alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status of patients: interview study from the Third National Cancer Survey. J Natl Cancer Inst 1977; 58: 52547.
  • 46
    Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA. Does alcohol consumption influence the risk of developing breast cancer? In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA. editors. Important advances in oncology. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1989: 26781.
  • 47
    Willett W, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1987; 315: 117480.
  • 48
    Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Litin L, Sampson L, et al. The assessment of alcohol consumption by a simple self-administered questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 133: 8107.
  • 49
    Schrauzer GN, McGinness JE, Ishmael D, Bell LJ. Alcoholism and cancer: 1. Effects of long-term exposure to alcohol on spontaneous mammary adeno-carcinoma and prolactin levels in C3H/St mice. J Stud Alcohol 1979; 40: 2406.
  • 50
    Longnecker MP, Berlin JA, Orza MJ, Chalmers TC. A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1988; 260: 6526.
  • 51
    Howe G, Rohan T, Decarli A, Iscovich J, Kaldor J, Katsouyanni K, et al. The association between alcohol and breast cancer risk: evidence from the combined analysis of six dietary case-control studies. Int J Cancer 1991; 47: 70710.
  • 52
    Reichamn ME, Judd JT, Longcope C, Schatzkin A, Nair PP, Taylor PR, et al. Alcohol consumption and hormone levels in a controlled diet study of premenopausal women [abstract]. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 134: 715.
  • 53
    Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in women. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 26773.
  • 54
    Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE, Arky RA, Hennekens CH, et al. A prospective study of moderate alcohol drinking and risk of diabetes in women. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 128: 54958.
  • 55
    Hunter DJ, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Manson J, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, et al. A prospective study of consumption of vitamins A, C, and E and breast cancer risk [abstract]. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 134: 715.
  • 56
    Hunter DJ, Morris JS, Chute CG, Kushner E, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Predictors of selenium concentration in human toenails. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132: 11422.
  • 57
    Hunter DJ, Morris JS, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Willett WC. A prospective study of selenium status and breast cancer risk. JAMA 1990; 264: 112831.
  • 58
    Dupont WD, Page DL. Risk factors for breast cancer in women with proliferative breast disease. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 14651.
  • 59
    London SJ, Connolly JL, Schnitt SJ, Colditz GA. A prospective study of benign breast disease and risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1992; 267: 9414.
  • 60
    Boas F. Observations on the growth of children. Science 1930; 72: 448.
  • 61
    Tanner JM. The development of the female reproductive system during adolescence. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1960; 3: 135.
  • 62
    Chen J, Campbell TC, Junyao L, Peto R. Diet, lifestyle and mortality in China. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1990: 13545.
  • 63
    Chen J, Campbell TC, Junyao L, Peto R. Diet, lifestyle and mortality in China. Oxford University Press, 1990.
  • 64
    Vatten LJ, Kvinnsland SK. Body height and risk of breast cancer: a prospective study of 23,831 Norwegian women. Br J Cancer 1990; 61: 8815.
  • 65
    Wang DY, Key TJA, Pike MC, Boreham J, Chen J. Serum hormone levels in British and rural Chinese females. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 1991; 18: S415.
  • 66
    Bernstein L, Yuan J-M, Ross RK, Pike MC, Hanisch R, Lobo R, et al. Serum hormone levels in pre-menopausal Chinese women of Shanghai and white women in Los Angeles: results from two breast cancer case–control studies. Cancer Causes and Control 1990; 1: 518.
  • 67
    Ip C. Quantitative assessment of fat and calories as factors in mammary carcinogenesis in an experimental model. Prog Clin Biol Res 1990; 346: 10717.
  • 68
    McGregor OH, Land CE, Choi K, Tokuoka S, Lui PI, Wakabayashi T, et al. Breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950–69. J Natl Cancer Inst 1977; 59: 799811.
  • 69
    Russo J, Kay LK, Russo IH. Differentiation of the mammary gland and susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 1982; 2: 573.