• 1
    Delaney TF. Proton therapy in the clinic. Front Radiat Ther Oncol. 2011;43:465485.
  • 2
    Sher DJ. Cost-effectiveness studies in radiation therapy. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2010;10:567582.
  • 3
    Peeters A, Grutters JP, Pijls-Johannesma M, et al. How costly is particle therapy? Radiother Oncol. 2010;95:4553.
  • 4
    Pijls-Johannesma M, Pommier P, Lievens Y. Cost-effectiveness of particle therapy. Radiother Oncol. 2008;89:127134.
  • 5
    Epstein K. Is spending on proton beam therapy for cancer going too far, too fast [serial online]? BMJ. 2012;344:e2488.
  • 6
    Levin WP, Kooy H, Loeffler JS, DeLaney TF. Proton beam therapy. Br J Cancer. 2005;93:849854.
  • 7
    Brodin NP, Munck Af Rosenschold P, Aznar MC, et al. Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma. Acta Oncol. 2011;50:806816.
  • 8
    Freeman CR, Taylor RE, Kortmann RD, Carrie C. Radiotherapy for medulloblastoma in children: a perspective on current international clinical research efforts. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2002;39:99108.
  • 9
    Bailey CC, Gnekow A, Wellek S, et al. Prospective randomised trial of chemotherapy given before radiotherapy in childhood medulloblastoma. International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) and the (German) Society of Paediatric Oncology (GPO): SIOP II. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1995;25:166178.
  • 10
    Fossati P, Ricardi U, Orecchia R. Pediatric medulloblastoma: toxicity of current treatment and potential role of proton therapy. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009;35:7996.
  • 11
    St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Hormonal systems: all cancers. Memphis, TN: St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; 2012 [updated September 15, 2008]. Available at: Accessed August 1, 2012.
  • 12
    Lundkvist J, Ekman M, Ericsson SR, Jonsson B, Glimelius B. Cost effectiveness of proton radiation in the treatment of childhood medulloblastoma. Cancer. 2005;103:793801.
  • 13
    Yock TI, Yeap BY, Ebb D, et al. A phase II trial of photon radiotherapy for medulloblastoma: preliminary results [abstract]. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(suppl 18). Abstract CRA9507.
  • 14
    Arias E. United States life tables, 2007. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2011;59:160.
  • 15
    Merchant TE, Rose SR, Bosley C, Wu S, Xiong X, Lustig RH. Growth hormone secretion after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized brain tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:47764780.
  • 16
    Frange P, Alapetite C, Gaboriaud G, et al. From childhood to adulthood: long-term outcome of medulloblastoma patients. The Institut Curie experience (1980–2000). J Neurooncol. 2009;95:271279.
  • 17
    Heikens J, Michiels EM, Behrendt H, Endert E, Bakker PJ, Fliers E. Long-term neuro-endocrine sequelae after treatment for childhood medulloblastoma. Eur J Cancer. 1998;34:15921597.
  • 18
    Miralbell R, Lomax A, Russo M. Potential role of proton therapy in the treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma/primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors: spinal theca irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1997;38:805811.
  • 19
    Sullivan PW, Ghushchyan V. Preference-Based EQ-5D index scores for chronic conditions in the United States. Med Decis Making. 2006;26:410420.
  • 20
    Ekman B, Bachrach-Lindstrom M, Lindstrom T, et al. A randomized, double-blind, crossover study comparing 2- and 4-dose hydrocortisone regimen with regard to quality of life, cortisol and ACTH profiles in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;77:1825.
  • 21
    Koltowska-Haggstrom M, Mattsson AF, Shalet SM. Assessment of quality of life in adult patients with GH deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161:S51S64.
  • 22
    Krahn M, Ritvo P, Irvine J, et al. Patient and community preferences for outcomes in prostate cancer. Med Care. 2003;41:153164.
  • 23
    Packer RJ, Gajjar A, Vezina G, et al. Phase III study of craniospinal radiation therapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed average-risk medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:42024208.
  • 24
    Cook DM, Yuen KC, Biller BM, Kemp SF, Vance ML. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for growth hormone use in growth hormone-deficient adults and transition patients—2009 update. Endocr Pract. 2009;15(suppl 2):129.
  • 25
    Baskin HJ, Cobin RH, Duick DS, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 2002;8:457469.
  • 26
    Mohr PE, Feldman JJ, Dunbar JL, et al. The societal costs of severe to profound hearing loss in the United States. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2000;16:11201135.
  • 27
    Grossman AB. The diagnosis and management of central hypoadrenalism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:48554863.
  • 28
    Snyder PJ. Testosterone treatment of male hypogonadism. In: Basow, DS, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2012.
  • 29
    Nelson L, Calis KA. Management of spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency. In: Basow, DS, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2012.
  • 30
    Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG. 2009 Focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: developed in collaboration with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation [serial online]. Circulation. 2009;119:e391e479.
  • 31
    Fraker TD Jr, Fihn SD, Gibbons RJ, et al. 2007 Chronic angina focused update of the ACC/AHA 2002 guidelines for the management of patients with chronic stable angina. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:22642274.
  • 32
    PDR Network. Red Book: Pharmacy's Fundamental Reference. Montvale, NJ: PDR Network; 2010.
  • 33
    Bureau of Labor Statistics. CPI Inflation Calculator. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2012. Available at: Accessed August 1, 2012.
  • 34
    Russell LB, Gold MR, Siegel JE, Daniels N, Weinstein MC. The role of cost-effectiveness analysis in health and medicine. Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. JAMA. 1996;276:11721177.
  • 35
    Eichler HG, Kong SX, Gerth WC, Mavros P, Jonsson B. Use of cost-effective analysis in health-care resource allocation decision-making: how are cost-effectiveness thresholds expected to emerge? Value Health. 2004;7:518528.
  • 36
    Ungar WJ. Challenges in health state valuation in paediatric economic evaluation: are QALYs contraindicated? Pharmacoeconomics. 2011;29:641652.
  • 37
    Goitein M, Jermann M. The relative costs of proton and x-ray radiation therapy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2003;15:S37S50.
  • 38
    Armstrong GT, Liu Q, Yasui Y, et al. Long-term outcomes among adult survivors of childhood central nervous system malignancies in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:946958.
  • 39
    Bressler J, Kim KA, Chakraborti T, Goldstein G. Molecular mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res. 1999;24:595600.
  • 40
    Calabrese P, Schlegel U. Neurotoxicity of treatment. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2009;171:165174.
  • 41
    Schwartz J. Societal benefits of reducing lead exposure. Environ Res. 1994;66:105124.
  • 42
    Zagorsky JL. Do you have to be smart to be rich? The impact of IQ on wealth, income and financial distress. Intelligence. 2007;35:489501.
  • 43
    Merchant TE, Hua C, Shukla H, et al. Proton versus photon radiotherapy for common pediatric brain tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51:110117.
  • 44
    US Bureau of Labor Statistics. National Compensation Survey: Occupational Earning in the United States, 2010. Washington, DC: United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; 2010. Available at: Accessed June 1, 2013.