• 1
    Halabi S, Vogelzang NJ, Kornblith AB, et al. Pain predicts overall survival in men with metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:25442549.
  • 2
    Apolone G, Corli O, Caraceni A, et al. Pattern and quality of care of cancer pain management. Results from the Cancer Pain Outcome Research Study Group. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:15661574.
  • 3
    Farooqui M, Li Y, Rogers T, et al. COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib prevents chronic morphine-induced promotion of angiogenesis, tumour growth, metastasis and mortality, without compromising analgesia. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:15231531.
  • 4
    Gupta K, Kshirsagar S, Chang L, et al. Morphine stimulates angiogenesis by activating proangiogenic and survival-promoting signaling and promotes breast tumor growth. Cancer Res. 2002;62:44914498.
  • 5
    Mathew B, Lennon FE, Siegler J, et al. The novel role of the mu opioid receptor in lung cancer progression: a laboratory investigation. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:558567.
  • 6
    Fujioka N, Nguyen J, Chen C, et al. Morphine-induced epidermal growth factor pathway activation in non-small cell lung cancer. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:13531364.
  • 7
    Lennon FE, Mirzapoiazova T, Mambetsariev B, Salgia R, Moss J, Singleton PA. Overexpression of the mu-opioid receptor in human non-small cell lung cancer promotes Akt and mTOR activation, tumor growth, and metastasis. Anesthesiol. 2012;116:857867.
  • 8
    Chen C, Farooqui M, Gupta K. Morphine stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor-like signaling in mouse retinal endothelial cells. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2006;3:171180.
  • 9
    Luk K, Boatman S, Johnson KN, et al. Influence of morphine on pericyte-endothelial interaction: implications for antiangiogenic therapy. J Oncol. 2012;2012:458385.
  • 10
    Singleton PA, Lingen MW, Fekete MJ, Garcia JG, Moss J. Methylnaltrexone inhibits opiate and VEGF-induced angiogenesis: role of receptor transactivation. Microvasc Res. 2006;72:311.
  • 11
    Singleton PA, Moreno-Vinasco L, Sammani S, Wanderling SL, Moss J, Garcia JG. Attenuation of vascular permeability by methylnaltrexone: role of mOP-R and S1P3 transactivation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;37:222231.
  • 12
    Madar I, Bencherif B, Lever J, et al. Imaging delta- and mu-opioid receptors by PET in lung carcinoma patients. J Nucl Med. 2007;48:207213.
  • 13
    Nylund G, Pettersson A, Bengtsson C, Khorram-Manesh A, Nordgren S, Delbro DS. Functional expression of mu-opioid receptors in the human colon cancer cell line, HT-29, and their localization in human colon. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:461466.
  • 14
    Bortsov AV, Millikan RC, Belfer I, Boortz-Marx RL, Arora H, McLean SA. mu-Opioid receptor gene A118G polymorphism predicts survival in patients with breast cancer. Anesthesiol. 2012;116:896902.
  • 15
    Wang S, Li Y, Liu XD, Zhao CX, Yang KQ. Polymorphism of A118G in mu-opioid receptor gene is associated with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Chinese population Int J Clin Oncol. 2013;18:666669.
  • 16
    Armstrong AJ, Garrett-Mayer E, Ou Yang YC, et al. Prostate-specific antigen and pain surrogacy analysis in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:39653970.
  • 17
    Herndon JE 2nd, Fleishman S, Kornblith AB, Kosty M, Green MR, Holland J. Is quality of life predictive of the survival of patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma? Cancer. 1999;85:333340.
  • 18
    Quinten C, Coens C, Mauer M, et al. Baseline quality of life as a prognostic indicator of survival: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from EORTC clinical trials. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:865871.
  • 19
    Tannock IF, de Wit R, Berry WR, et al. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:15021512.
  • 20
    Lissoni P, Meregalli S, Fossati V, et al. Radioendocrine therapy of brain tumors with the long acting opioid antagonist naltrexone in association with radiotherapy. Tumori. 1993;79:198201.
  • 21
    Lillemoe KD, Cameron JL, Kaufman HS, Yeo CJ, Pitt HA, Sauter PK. Chemical splanchnicectomy in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. A prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg. 1993;217:447455.
  • 22
    Smith TJ, Staats PS, Deer T, et al. Randomized clinical trial of an implantable drug delivery system compared with comprehensive medical management for refractory cancer pain: impact on pain, drug-related toxicity, and survival. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:40404049.
  • 23
    Scher HI, Halabi S, Tannock I, et al. Design and end points of clinical trials for patients with progressive prostate cancer and castrate levels of testosterone: recommendations of the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:11481159.
  • 24
    Gammaitoni AR, Fine P, Alvarez N, McPherson ML, Bergmark S. Clinical application of opioid equianalgesic data. Clin J Pain. 2003;19:286297.
  • 25
    Boehncke S, Hardt K, Schadendorf D, Henschler R, Boehncke WH, Duthey B. Endogenous mu-opioid peptides modulate immune response towards malignant melanoma. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:2428.
  • 26
    Moss J, Israel RJ. Effects of anesthetics on cancer recurrence. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:e89; author reply e90.
  • 27
    Weckermann D, Polzer B, Ragg T, et al. Perioperative activation of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:15491556.
  • 28
    Zagon IS, McLaughlin PJ. Opioid antagonists inhibit the growth of metastatic murine neuroblastoma. Cancer Lett. 1983;21:8994.
  • 29
    McLaughlin PJ, Stucki JK, Zagon IS. Modulation of the opioid growth factor ([Met(5)]-enkephalin)-opioid growth factor receptor axis: novel therapies for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck. 2012;34:513519.
  • 30
    Bihari B, inventor; Bihari B, assignee.Method of treating cancer of the prostate. US patent 6 384 044. May 7, 2002.
  • 31
    Iniguez MA, Rodriguez A, Volpert OV, Fresno M, Redondo JM. Cyclooxygenase-2: a therapeutic target in angiogenesis. Trends Mol Med. 2003;9:7378.
  • 32
    Mantyh PW. Cancer pain and its impact on diagnosis, survival and quality of life. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7:797809.
  • 33
    de Bono JS, Logothetis CJ, Molina A, et al. Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:19952005.
  • 34
    de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. Lancet. 2010;376:11471154.
  • 35
    Koetzner L, Hua XY, Lai J, Porreca F, Yaksh T. Nonopioid actions of intrathecal dynorphin evoke spinal excitatory amino acid and prostaglandin E2 release mediated by cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. J Neurosci. 2004;24:14511458.
  • 36
    Biki B, Mascha E, Moriarty DC, Fitzpatrick JM, Sessler DI, Buggy DJ. Anesthetic technique for radical prostatectomy surgery affects cancer recurrence: a retrospective analysis. Anesthesiol. 2008;109:180187.
  • 37
    Christopherson R, James KE, Tableman M, Marshall P, Johnson FE. Long-term survival after colon cancer surgery: a variation associated with choice of anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:325332.
  • 38
    Exadaktylos AK, Buggy DJ, Moriarty DC, Mascha E, Sessler DI. Can anesthetic technique for primary breast cancer surgery affect recurrence or metastasis? Anesthesiol. 2006;105:660664.
  • 39
    Gottschalk A, Ford JG, Regelin CC, et al. Association between epidural analgesia and cancer recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery. Anesthesiol. 2010;113:2734.
  • 40
    Myles PS, Peyton P, Silbert B, Hunt J, Rigg JR, Sessler DI. Perioperative epidural analgesia for major abdominal surgery for cancer and recurrence-free survival: randomised trial. Br Med J. 2011;342:d1491.
  • 41
    Safarinejad MR, Asgari SA, Farshi A, Iravani S, Khoshdel A, Shekarchi B. Opium consumption is negatively associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, and percentage of free PSA levels. J Addict Med. 2013;7:5865.
  • 42
    Kraus J. Regulation of mu-opioid receptors by cytokines. Front Biosci. 2009;1:164170.