Phase 2 trial of aromatase inhibition with letrozole in patients with uterine leiomyosarcomas expressing estrogen and/or progesterone receptors




Advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is an incurable disease. A significant percentage of cases of ULMS express estrogen and/or progesterone receptors (ER and/or PR). To the authors' knowledge, the role of estrogen suppression in disease management is not known.


The authors performed a single-arm phase 2 study of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole at a dose of 2.5 mg daily in patients with unresectable ULMS with ER and/or PR expression confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Tumor assessments were performed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and every 8 weeks thereafter. Toxicity was monitored throughout treatment. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival at 12 weeks.


A total of 27 patients was accrued, with a median of 2 prior treatment regimens (range, 0-9 treatment regimens). The median duration of protocol treatment was 2.2 months (range, 0.4 months-9.9 months). The 12-week progression-free survival rate was 50% (90% confidence interval, 30%-67%). The best response was stable disease in 14 patients (54%; 90% CI, 36%-71%). Three patients, all of whom had tumors expressing ER and PR in > 90% of tumor cells, continued to receive letrozole for > 24 weeks. The most common reason for treatment discontinuation was disease progression (85%). Letrozole was found to be well tolerated.


Letrozole met protocol-defined criteria as an agent with activity in patients with advanced ULMS. Patients with the longest progression-free survival rate were those whose tumors strongly and diffusely expressed ER and PR. Cancer 2014;120:738–743. © 2013 American Cancer Society.